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Thursday, July 14, 2011

English Learning - 200 Most Common Indonesian Words

200 Most Common Indonesian Words

Vocabulary Building 

by TruAlfa & 


Word English Translation

ada v. = there is, there are; to have; to be

adalah (1) p. = was; were; am; is; are; to be; there was

adalah (2) n. = equation mark; equal sign

agar p. = in order to; in order that; so that; for

air n. = water; juice; liquid; fluid

akan p. = will; shall

akibat n. = result; consequence; outcome; effect; impact

aku pron. = I, me; myself

anak n. = child; offspring; issue

anda pron. = you; your

antara p. = among; between; intermediate

apa p. = what; which; whether; if; or

atas (1) p. = for; about; according to

atas (2) p. = upper; above; over; onto; aloft; up

atau p. = or; nor

bagi (1) adv. = for; regarding; in order to; on behalf of

bagi (2) n. = share; fraction; part; portion

bagian n. = portion; part; share; fraction; piece; section

bagus adj. = good; fine; splendid; excellent

bahkan adv. = moreover; in fact; what is more; even; yes

bahwa p. = that; a conjunction word

baik adj. = good; well; nice; fine

banyak adj. = much; many; numerous; considerable; a lot

barang n. = things; goods; luggage; items; objects; articles

baru (1) adj. = new; fresh; recent; novel

baru (2) adj. = only; just

beberapa adj. = several; some; a few; various

begitu p. = like that; in that manner; such; so

belum adv. = not yet; maybe later

benar adj. = real; right; correct; valid; honest; true

bersama v. = being together; with; joint; similar; common

besar adj. = big; great; large; sizeable; great

biasa adj. = usual; ordinary; normal; common; general

bila p. = when; if

bisa (1) adj. = able; capable; possible; can; may

bisa (2) n. = poison; venom

boleh adv. = may; can; possibly; allowed; perhaps; could

buah n. = fruit; an object like a fruit; a piece; a unit

bukan adv. = no; not; false; just the opposite

cara n. = way; manner; method; procedure; means

cepat adj. = fast; quick; rapid; swift; speedy

cukup adj. = sufficient; enough; ample; adequate

dalam p. = in; on; within; into; inside; deep

dan p. = and; plus

dapat (1) adv. = can; able to; possible; may

dapat (2) v. = to get; obtain; find; acquire

dari p. = from; than; of; through; since

datang v. = to come; arrive

dengan p. = with; by; by means of; in

depan (1) adv. = upcoming; in the future; in front

depan (2) n. = the front; the future; the facing side

di p. = at, on, in, to

dia (ia) pron. = he; she; him; her; it

dilakukan v.pass = did; done; carried out; undertaken

diri (1) n. = self; oneself; person

diri (2) v. = to stand; to be standing up

dulu (dahulu) adv. = formerly; earlier; previous; before; ago; in the past

hal n. = situation; condition; circumstance; matter

hanya adv. = just; merely; only; simply

harga n. = price; cost; value

hari n. = day

harus adv. = must; should; obliged to; have to; imperative

hati n. = heart; liver; emotional center; inner self

hidup (1) v. = to have life; to be living; to be alive; to exist

hidup (2) adj. = alive; living; existing; animate

hingga (1) p. = up to; as far as; until

hingga (2) n. = border; boundary; limits; end

ia (dia) pron. = he; she; it

ingin v. = to desire; want; covet; wish for

ini p. = this; these; here

itu p. = that; those

jadi (1) v. = to happen; occur; take place; become; to be

jadi (2) p. = so; thus; therefore; consequently

jalan (1) n. = street; road; path; way; course; journey; career

jalan (2) n. = manner; method; way of doing

jangan p. = don't; do not; must not; can't

jauh adj. = far; distant; far away; off; away

jelas adj. = clear; distinct; settled; obvious

jika p. = if; when; as long as; provided that

juga adv. = too; also; as well as; still; yet; either

jumlah n. = sum; total; amount; quantity; tally

juta n. = million; one million (1,000,000)

kalau p. = if; when; on the condition that

kali (1) n. = river; stream

kali (2) n. = time; occurrence; time period

kami pron. = we; us; our (excluding the persons talked to)

kamu pron. = you

karena p. = because; therefore; cause; reason

kata (1) n. = word; term; saying; phrase; remark

kata (2) v. = said; spoke; stated

ke p. = towards; in direction of; to

kecil adj. = little; small; insignificant; dinky

kecuali p. = besides; except for; but for; only; just

kembali (1) v. = to return; to go back; coming back

kembali (2) p. = you're welcome; short form of "terima kasih kembali"

kemudian adv. = afterwards; later on; then; after; subsequently

kepada p. = to; toward; for

kepala n. = head; headman; chief

kerja n. = work; labor; job; occupation; employment

ketika (1) n. = a moment; time; a point in time

ketika (2) adv. = when; while

khusus adj. = special; uncommon; peculiar; especial; exceptional

kini adv. = now; today; presently; currently

kita pron. = us; we; our (including the listener)

ku (aku) pron. = I, me, my (short form of "aku")

kurang adv. = insufficient; not enough; lacking; deficient

lagi (1) p. = more; again; another; additional; afresh; anew

lagi (2) p. = while; during; in the middle of

lain adj. = other; different; distinct

lalu (1) adj. = last; previous; past

lalu (2) adv. = then; and so

lalu (3) v. = to pass; pass through; go by; lapse; take place

lama adj. = long duration; lasting; stale; old

langsung (1) adj. = direct; nonstop; straight through

langsung (2) adv. = immediately; forthwith; at once; outright

luar adv. = out; outside; outer; beyond; external; exterior

maka p. = so; then; therefore; thus; a conjunction word

makan v. = to eat; consume food

makanan n. = a meal; food; provisions

makin adv. = increasingly; more and more; all the more

malam n. = night; night time; evening

mampu adj. = able; capable; affordable; wealthy; rich; powerful

mana p. = which; where; how; what

masalah n. = question; issue; matter; problem; trouble

masih adv. = still; yet; as yet; even though

masuk v. = to enter; go in; come in

mata (1) n. = eye

mata (2) n. = source; nucleus; core; essence

mau p. = wish; will; want; desire

maupun p. = although; in spite of

melakukan v. = to implement; carry out; execute; do; perform

melalui p. = through; via; by way of

memang adv. = indeed; yes; actually; naturally; certainly; of course; an affirming word

memberi v. = to give; allow; grant

memberikan v. = to give; give away; hand over; confer; render

membuat v. = to build; make; prepare; produce; manufacture

memiliki v. = to own; possess; have

mencari v. = to search; seek; look for; pursue

mengatakan v. = to say; tell; state; express; announce; remark

menjadi v. = to become; happen; to be born; to be

menurut p. = according to; pursuant

merasa v. = to feel; sense; taste; think; believe

mereka pron. = they; them; their

merupakan v. = to shape; model; form; constitute

mudah adj. = easy; simple; facile; quick; convenient

mulai v. = to begin; start; commence; trigger

mungkin adv. = maybe; possible; possibly; perhaps; might; may

naik v. = to ascend; climb; rise; go up; ride up; ride; mount

nama n. = name; appellation; title

namun p. = yet; even though; still; even if; although

nanti (1) adv. = later; at a future time

nanti (2) v. = to wait; wait for

nanti (3) v. = will; shall; going to

oleh p. = by means of; because of; by

orang n. = person; human being

pada (1) adj. = enough; sufficient

pada (2) p. = at; in; by; on; according to

paling adj. = extreme; utmost; most; most extreme

perlu (1) adv. = must; obliged to; have to; required

perlu (2) adj. = important; indispensable; necessary; essential

perlu (3) p. = for

perlu (4) v. = to need; require

pernah adv. = have been; once; already; ever

pertama adj. = first; foremost; premier; primary; chief

pula p. = again; also; too

pulang v. = to return; come home; go back; go home

punya v. = to own; possess; have; has

pusat n. = central place; center; focus; focal point

saat n. = a moment; a short time; while; during

saja (1) adv. = just; merely; only; exclusively

saja (2) adv. = an emphasis word; very; extremely

saja (3) adv. = also; too

salah (1) n. = a mistake; an error; an inaccuracy

salah (2) adj. = erroneous; wrong; faulty; mistaken; false

sama adj. = same; similar; identical; alike; equal

sambil p. = while; during; at the same time

sampai (1) p. = until; up to; as far as; yet

sampai (2) v. = to accomplish; achieve; reach; finish; arrive

sangat adj. = exceedingly; extreme; intense; very

saya pron. = I; me; my

sebab p. = because; cause; since

sebagai adv. = as; like; similar to

sebelum adv. = before; preceding; in advance of; antecedent

sebuah n. = a piece of; a; an; inanimate classifier

secara p. = a method; manner; way; by means of

sedang (1) adv. = while; still; whereas; even though; even if; is; are; am

sedang (2) adj. = average; medium; intermediate; moderate

sedikit adj. = little; few; a bit; not much

segera adv. = soon; promptly; immediately; early

sehingga p. = so that

sejak (semenjak) p. = since; from

sekali (1) p. = very; much so; quite

sekali (2) p. = once; one time; singular

sekalipun p. = although; even though; even if; notwithstanding

sekarang adv. = now; presently; currently; at this time

sekitar (1) adv. = about; around; approximately

sekitar (2) n. = surroundings; environs

selalu adv. = always; continuously; forever; invariably

selama adv. = during; while; as long as; for the duration of

seluruh adv. = all; throughout; an entirety; a whole group

sementara adv. = during; while; whereas; meanwhile; temporary

semua adv. = entire group; all; whole

sendiri adj. = self; alone; lone; personal; private

seperti p. = such as; like; akin; as if; as

sering adj. = often; frequently; a lot

serta p. = along with; as well as; together with; including

sesuai adj. = suitable; proper; agreeable; fitting; appropriate

sesuatu adj. = something; some; any

setelah adv. = after; subsequent to

setiap p. = each; every; per

siap adj. = ready; prepared; finished; poised

siapa = a question word meaning: who; whom; whose

sini p. = here; this place

suatu n. = one; any; an; a; some; a certain one

sudah adv. = done; already finished

tahu v. = to know; to be aware of

tak p. = no; not; short form of "tidak"

tanpa adv. = without; not having

tapi (tetapi) p. = but; still; yet; however

telah adv. = already; by now

tempat n. = a place; room; location; locality; locale; position; site

tengah (1) n. = middle; center; half way; midst

tengah (2) adv. = in process; during; while; still

tentang p. = about; concerning; regarding; with respect to

terhadap p. = regarding; concerning; with respect to; facing

terjadi v. = to have happened; taken place; occurred; existed

terlalu adv. = very; too much; excessive; exceedingly; extremely

termasuk v. = included; contained; belonging to; inclusive

tersebut v. = above mentioned; referred to; named

terus adv. = directly; forward; through; continuous

tetapi (tapi) p. = but; still; yet; however

tiba v. = to arrive; to come

tidak adv. = no; not; nay

tinggi adj. = high; lofty; exalted; tall

uang n. = money; wealth

untuk p. = for; to; in order to; by way of

waktu (1) n. = time; moment; point in time; term

waktu (2) adv. = when (referring to previous time)

yaitu (jaitu) adv. = namely; that is

yang p. = that; which; who

Most Common English Words 

by TruAlfa Dictionaries & 

the article = si; itu; tersebut

and conj. = dan; serta; juga

of var. = dari; daripada

to var. = ke; kepada; di; untuk

a article = sebuah; seekor; suatu; satu

in var. = dalam; di; di dalam; ke dalam; pada

was v. = ada; adalah; berada; jadi; menjadi

it n. = itu; ini; dia; ia

that 1 pron. = yang; itu

that 2 var. = bahwa; nan

with var. = dengan; bareng; bersama

I n. = saya; aku; ku; beta; gue; gua

as adv. = sebagai; selaku; sebagaimana; secara; seperti

by var. = oleh; demi; dengan; pada

had 1 possessed; owned = ada; berada; punya; mempunyai; memiliki

had 2 already happened v. = terjadi; sudah ada

on 1 activated adj. = hidup; on

on 2 on top of adv. = di atas; pada puncaknya

for 1 indicating object or purpose var. = untuk; kepada; bagi; demi; akan

for 2 in favor of var. = mendahulukan; mendukung; lebih suka

were v. = ada; adalah

which pron. = mana; yang; yang mana

at var. = di; pada

is v. = ada; adalah; ialah

they pron. = mereka

he n. = ia; dia; beliau (laki-laki)

or var. = atau; kata penghubung menandai pilihan

this adj. = ini; nih

be v. = ada; adalah; berada; jadi; menjadi; eksis

all adj. = semua; segala; segenap; sekalian; seantero

we pron. = kami; kita

his pron. = kepunyaannya (lelaki)

not negative = bukan; tiada; nggak; tidak; tak

but var. = cuma; hanya; tapi; tetapi; padahal

from 1 indicating prior place var. = dari

from 2 since; indicating prior time var. = sejak

from 3 different than; compared to var. = daripada

are v. = adalah; ialah

have v. = ada; berada; punya; mempunyai; memiliki

their pron. = kepunyaan mereka

one 1 the number one n. = satu; eka; esa

one 2 a; an n. = suatu; sesuatu

very adj./adv. = sekali; sangat; teramat

so 1 extremely adj. = amat; sangat

so 2 thus var. = begitu; maka; jadi; demikian; oleh karena itu

an article = sebuah; seekor; suatu; satu

been v. = ada; adalah; berada; jadi; menjadi

who pron. = siapa; siapakah; yang

would v. = akan

its possessive form of "it" pron. = kepunyaan dia (benda)

some 1 several; a few adj. = sedikit; beberapa tapi tidak banyak

some 2 a certain one adj. = suatu; sesuatu

them pron. = mereka

when 1 question word adv. = kapan

when 2 at what time adv. = bila; apabila; bila mana; tatkala

these adj. = ini; nih

my n. = aku; ku; saya; gue; gua

about 1 approximately adv. = sekitar; kira-kira; kurang lebih

about 2 nearby; in the area adv. = dimana-mana; kemana-mana

about 3 concerning; regarding var. = tentang; atas; akan hal; berhubungan dengan

every adj. = segala; tiap; setiap; segenap; saban

could v. = bisa; akan bisa

him n. = dia; ia (lelaki)

there adv. = sana; situ; di sana; di situ; ke sana; ke situ

me n. = aku; ku; saya; gue; gua

up adv. = di atas; ke atas; atas

then adv. = lalu; kemudian; selanjutnya; lantas

time 1 duration as measured by a clock n. = waktu; jam; tempo

time 2 to measure duration with a clock v. = mengukur waktu; mencatat waktu

time 3 an era; a period of history n. = masa; zaman

time 4 a particular point in a 24 hour day n. = waktu; jam waktu

time 5 an occurrence; a repeating event n. = kali; kejadian

more adj. = lagi; lebih; lebih banyak

after adv. = kemudian; sehabis; sesudah; setelah; pasca

no negative = tidak; bukan; nggak; enggak; tak; ndak

other adj. = lain; lain-lain

men n. = kaum laki-laki; pria

little 1 small; not big adj. = kecil; cilik; tidak besar

little 2 a little; a small amount = sedikit; secolek; sekelumit

has v. = ada; punya; punyai; mempunyai

great 1 exalted; almighty adj. = agung; akbar; raya

great 2 large; tremendous adj. = gede; besar; hebat

great 3 fantastic; very good adj. = asyik; bagus sekali

only adj. = hanya; saja; cuma

many adj. = banyak; jumlah yang banyak

man 1 mankind; humanity n. = manusia; mahkluk yang berakal budi

man 2 a male person n. = laki-laki; lelaki; pria

into var. = dalam; ke dalam

out adv. = luar; keluar; di luar; ke luar

if var. = jika; kalau; jikalau; bila; andai; sekiranya; seandainya

our pron. = kami; kita

first adj. = pertama; perdana; asal; mula; kesatu; semula; ke-1

us n. = kami; kita

day n. = hari; waktu 24 jam; waktu selama matahari bersinar setiap hari

will 1 a desire; a wanting n. = kehendak; kemauan; keinginan; hasrat

will 2 an inheritance document n. = wasiat; surat wasiat

will 3 will do, will be, etc. v. = akan

where adv. = mana; dimana; di mana; ke mana

than var. = daripada; ketimbang

most adj. = paling; paling banyak; terbanyak; sebagian besar

few adj. = sedikit; beberapa; minim; tidak banyak; tidak cukup

while adv. = sambil; selama; sewaktu; sedang; semasa; sembari

what 1 pron. = mana; apa

what 2 ques. = apa; apakah

small adj. = kecil; cilik; rawit; kerdil; tidak besar

much adj. = banyak; besar jumlahnya

made v.pass. = dibuat; dibikin; diolah; diperbuat; diproduksi; terbuat

now adv. = kini; sekarang; saat ini

large adj. = besar; gede; raya; gadang

same adj. = sama; sama saja

place 1 a place n. = tempat; lokasi; kedudukan

place 2 to place v. = tempatkan; menempatkan; letakkan; meletakkan

house 1 a home; a place to live n. = rumah; griya; hunian; bungalo; bangunan untuk tempat tinggal

house 2 to provide housing v. = menempatkan; memondokkan

such adv. = begitu; demikian

you 1 pron. singular = anda; engkau; kau; kamu

you 2 pron. plural = kalian

being 1 existence; life n. = wujud; keberadaan

being 2 a person; a human being n. = manusia; orang; insan

being 3 to be v. = ada; adalah; berada; jadi; menjadi

here var. = ini; sini; di sini; ke sini; kemari

long 1 long length; not short adj. = panjang

long 2 long distance; far adj. = jauh; tidak dekat

long 3 long time adj. = lama; tidak singkat

long 4 to long for; wish for v. = kangen; kepingin; merindukan; berhasrat; mendambakan; mengharapkan; rindu akan

down 1 under; below adv. = ke bawah; di bawah

down 2 soft feathers; goose down n. = roma; bulu halus

over 1 above; covering adv. = atas; di atas

over 2 again adv. = sekali lagi

over 3 finished; done adv. = habis; berakhir; usai

over 4 upside down adv. = balik; sungsang; terbalik

over 5 concerning; regarding var. = mengenai; tentang; berkaitan dengan

over 6 as long as; over time var. = selama; sepanjang

any adj. = suatu; apa saja

again adv. = lagi; pula; sekali lagi

those pron. = itu; yang

did = melakukan; melaksanakan; menjalankan; membuatkan

can 1 a metal container n. = kaleng; belek; kemasan kaleng; kemasan yang dibuat dari logam

can 2 to preserve food in a can v. = mengalengkan; menyimpan dalam kaleng; mengawetkan dalam kaleng

can 3 able to; allowed to do v. = bisa; boleh; mampu

well 1 healthy; fit adj. = baik; sehat; walafiat

well 2 done well adv. = dengan baik; secara baik

well 3 emphasis word inter. = baiklah!

well 4 a water well n. = sumur; perigi; mata air

another 1 a different one pron. = lain; yang lain

another 2 one more; an additional one adj. = satu lagi

should 1 shall; must v. = semestinya; seharusnya

should 2 probability; if var. = jika; kalau; jikalau

should 3 would v. = akan

should 4 ought to v. = seyogyanya; hendaknya; sebaiknya

like 1 similar to; as if adj. = bagai; sebagai; seperti; serupa; mirip

like 2 fond of; liking v. = suka; sukai; menyukai; doyan; senangi

said 1 v.pass. = dibilang; dibilangkan; dikatakan; diucapkan

said 2 = berkata; berucap; bilang; bercakap; katakan; mengatakan; mengucapkan

away adv. = jauh; tidak dekat

along 1 all along adv. = sepanjang; selama; semasa

along 2 on the way adv. = terus; sejalan

along 3 along with; together with var. = serta; bersama-sama; bersama dengan

took v. = ambil; ambilkan; mengambil; mengambilkan; bawa; membawa; renggut

through 1 finished; done adv. = selesai; habis; rampung

through 2 by way of; via var. = melalui; lewat

make 1 a type; a brand n. = buatan; merek; cap

make 2 to make v. = berbuat; membuat; bikin; membikin; memfabrikasi; memproduksi; mengolah

several adj. = beberapa; jumlah lebih dari dua tetapi tidak banyak

each adj. = tiap; setiap; tiap-tiap; masing-masing; saban

before 1 in front of adv. = di hadapan; di muka; di depan

before 2 earlier in time adv. = dulu; lebih dulu; dahulu; sebelum; sebelumnya; tadi

good adj. = bagus; baik; jempol; mentereng; oke

fine 1 good; nice adj. = bagus; baik

fine 2 pretty adj. = indah; elok; permai

fine 3 delicate adj. = halus; seni

fine 4 a fee; a penalty n. = denda; penalti

fine 5 to impose a fine v. = mendenda; mengenakan dengan penalti

old adj. = tua; kuno; lanjut usia; renta; basi; purba

way n. = cara; jalanan; alur

off adj. = putus; terputus; tidak hidup

never adv. = tidak pernah; belum pernah

must 1 have to; required v. = harus; mesti; perlu

must 2 something that must be n. = keharusan

may 1 allowable v. = boleh; diizinkan; tidak dilarang

may 2 might; maybe v. = mungkin; barangkali

may 3 hopefully; may it be v. = berharap; semoga; moga-moga

go 1 to go v. = pergi; jalani; enyah; berjalan atau bergerak maju

almost adv. = hampir; nyaris; kurang sedikit

sometimes adv. = kadang-kadang; kadang kala; terkadang; acap kala

last 1 final adj. = akhir; final; lalu; lampau

last 2 latest; most recent adj. = terakhir; mutakhir

last 3 to endure over time v. = berlangsung; bertahan; tahan lama

high 1 exalted; respected adj. = agung

high 2 height adj. = tinggi

near 1 close adj. = dekat; berdampingan; karib; berdekatan; tidak jauh

near 2 to get closer v. = mendekatkan; mendekati; menghampiri; merapat

however var. = bagaimanapun; biarpun begitu; betapapun; akan tetapi; walaupun demikian

yet adv. = masih; namun; tapi; tetapi

went = pergi; jalani; enyah; berjalan

see v. = lihat; melihat; menyaksikan; memandang; tengok

part 1 partial; some adj. = parsial; sebagian

part 2 a part; a portion n. = bagian; belah; belahan; irisan; porsi

part 3 to part; to split up v. = bercerai; berpisah; cerai; memperceraikan

head 1 leading; primary adj. = pertama; utama; perdana

head 2 the head of a body n. = kepala; bongkol

head 3 a person in charge; a leader n. = kepala; ketua; pemimpin; penghulu

head 4 to be in charge of v. = memimpin; mengepalai; mengetuai

head 5 to go in a certain direction v. = menuju; mengarah

do v. = berbuat; melakukan; melaksanakan; menjalankan

brought 1 v.pass. = dibawa; terbawa

brought 2 v. = bawa; bawakan; membawa; mengantar

among var. = antara; di antara; di tengah-tengah

soon adv. = segera; tidak lama lagi; sebentar lagi

gives v. = beri; berikan; memberi; memberikan; menyodorkan

give v. = beri; berikan; memberi; memberikan; menyodorkan

might 1 maybe; possibly v. = mungkin; belum tentu; boleh jadi

might 2 power; control n. = daya; kuasa; kekuatan

might 3 may; permitted v. = boleh; bolehkah; bisa

gets v. = dapat; mendapat; memperoleh; menerima

get v. = dapat; mendapat; memperoleh; menerima

also adv. = juga; pula; pun

often adv. = sering; sering kali; kerap; kerap kali; acap kali

next the following one adj. = berikutnya; besok; yang akan datang pertama setelah ini

how adv. = bagaimana; mana; betapa; berapa

back 1 rear; behind adj./adv. = di belakang; ke belakang

back 2 a person's back n. = punggung; belakang

back 3 to move backwards v. = mundur; mengundurkan; memundurkan

back 4 to support v. = mendukung; menyokong; membeking

saw 1 seen; observed v. = lihat; melihat; menyaksikan; memandang; tengok; terpandang

saw 2 a tool for cutting n. = gergaji; alat bergigi untuk memotong kayu

saw 3 to saw wood, etc. v. = menggergaji; memotong kayu dengan gergaji

new adj. = baru; segar; tidak tua

too 1 also adv. = juga; pula; pun

too 2 excessive adv. = terlalu; terlampau; kelewat; kelewatan

her pron. = kepunyaan (perempuan); milik (perempuan)

why var. = kenapa; mengapa

she pron. = ia; dia (perempuan)


by TruAlfa &

Vocabulary-Building Word Lists

Indonesian Words English Translation


angkasa = atmosphere; firmament; sky; space

angkasa luar = outer space; the universe outside of Earth's atmosphere

angkasawan = spaceman; astronaut; cosmonaut

antariksa = space; outer space; firmament

asteroid = asteroid; an object in outer space smaller than a planet that revolves around the sun

astrologi = astrology; the study of objects in outer space (planets, stars, etc.)

astronaut = astronaut; a spaceman; a human space traveler

astronomi = astronomy; the science and study of objects in outer space

bimasakti = Milky Way galaxy; a large cluster of stars in outer space

bintang = star; constellation

bintang berekor = comet; milky way constellation

bintang bersinar = shining star

Bintang Utara = North Star

bulan = moon

bulan muda = new moon; waxing moon

bulan purnama = full moon

bulan tua = waning moon; decreasing moon

cahaya bulan = moonlight

cakrawala = the horizon; the heavens; sky; atmosphere; firmament; revolution

declinasi = declination; a downward bend

dirgantara = upper atmosphere; sky; outer space

gerhana = eclipse; a blocking from view of an object in outer space

gerhana bulan = lunar eclipse; an eclipse of the moon

gerhana matahari = solar eclipse; an eclipse of the sun

gerhana mutlak = total eclipse

gerhana sebagian = partial eclipse

ilmu falak = astronomy

jagat raya = universe; cosmos

Jupiter = Jupiter

komet = comet; an object in outer space that moves around the sun with a visible trail or "tail"

kosmik = cosmic; relating to the cosmos; regarding the universe

kosmos = cosmos; universe

langit = sky; heaven; firmament

lapisan ozon = ozone layer

Leo = Leo; the fifth sign of the zodiac

Libra = Libra; the seventh sign of the zodiac

lubang hitam = black hole; theoretical point in the universe remaining from a collapsed star

Mars = Mars (planet)

matahari = sun; the star which planet Earth orbits around

Merkurius = Mercury; the planet Mercury

meteor = meteor; an object from outer space that enters the earth's atmosphere; a "falling star"

nebula = nebula; a cloud of dust and gas in outer space

Neptunas = Neptune (planet)

nujum = astrological predictions; astrologer; stars

orbit = orbit; the continuous revolving of an object in outer space around another object

pesawat antariksa = spaceship

planet = planet; an object in outer space that orbits around a star

planetoid = planetoid; an object in outer space like a small planet that orbits around a star

Pluto = Pluto (planet)

ramalan bintang = horoscope; astrological forecasts of future events

satelit = satellite; an orbiting object

solstis = solstice

stratosfer = stratosphere; the earth's outer atmosphere

surya = sun; solar

tata surya = solar system

teleskop = telescope; a device for viewing and magnifying distant objects

troposfer = troposphere; an atmospheric layer existing above the earth's surface

Uranus = Uranus (planet)

Utarid = Mercury (planet)

Venus = Venus (planet)

zodiak = zodiac; astrological groupings of stars or objects in outer space


alis = eyebrow; the line of hair above a person's eye

amandel = tonsils; the two small fleshy organs at the rear of a person's tongue

anatomi = anatomy; the science and study of body structure

arteri = artery; a large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart

aurat = a private part of the body not to be exposed in public; sexual organ

badan = hull; body; torso; trunk; figure

badani = bodily; physical; corporal; carnal; material

badaniah = bodily; physical; corporal; carnal; material

bahu = shoulder

batang leher = neck

batang zakar = penis; male sex organ

betis = the calf of a leg; the hind part of a human leg below the knee

bibir = lip; edge; hem

bibir atas = upper lip

bibir bawah = lower lip

biji mata = eyeball; pupil

biseps = biceps; a double-headed muscle; a muscle of the upper arm

bokong = buttocks; butt; posterior; rump; fanny; buns

botak = bald; bald headed; hairless; without hair on the top of the head

buah dada = breast; bosom; bust

buah pelir = testicles

colon = colon; large intestine

cuping telinga = earlobe; the flesh at the bottom of a person's ear

dada = chest; breast; bosom; bust

dagu = chin; the lower front part of a person's jaw

dahi = forehead; brow

darah = blood

dengkul = knee

dubur = anus; the lower opening of the bowel where feces is excreted

esofagus = esophagus; gullet

genitalia = genitals; genitalia; the reproductive organs

gigi = tooth; an object similar to a tooth

ginjal = kidney; a human organ that excretes urine

gland = a gland; a body organ that produces a secretion

gonad = gonad; testicle; male sex gland

hati = heart; liver; emotional center; inner self

hidung = nose

himen = hymen; a membrane partly closing the orifice of the vagina

janggut = beard; chin hair; chin

jari = finger; toe; a shape like a finger

jari kaki = toe

jari kelingking = little finger

jari manis = ring finger

jari tangan = finger

jari telunjuk = index finger; forefinger

jari tengah = middle finger

jasmani = physique; body

jasmaniah = physical; corporal; carnal; material

jemari = finger

jempol = thumb; big toe

jenggot = beard; chin hair

kaki = foot; lower leg; lower part; foundation

kandung kemih = urinary bladder; a body organ that stores urine

kelenjar = a gland; a body organ that secretes fluids

kelenjar air mata = tear duct gland; a gland that secretes tears when crying, etc.

kelopak mata = eyelid; the layer of skin above the eye

kemaluan = genitals; the external reproductive sexual organs

kemaluan laki-laki = male genitals; the external reproductive organs of a male

kemaluan perempuan = female genitals; the external reproductive organs of a female

kening = eyebrow; brow; forehead

kepala = head; headman; chief

kerongkongan = throat; gullet; wind pipe

ketiak = armpit; the hollow area under the arm at the shoulder

kornea = cornea; a membrane covering the front of an eyeball

kuku = fingernail; toenail; claw; hoof; nail

kuku kaki = toenail

kuku tangan = fingernail

kulit kepala = scalp; the skin on the top of the head

kumis = moustache; hair growth on a man's upper lip

kuping = ear

kutil = wart; a mole; a small growth on the skin

leher = neck; throat area

lengan = arm; sleeve

liang kemaluan = vagina

lidah = tongue; an object shaped like a tongue

lutut = knee; the leg joint between the thigh and the lower leg

mata = eye

muka = face; front; surface; surface level

mukosa = mucus; a sticky body fluid in the nose and throat area

mulut = mouth; aperture; an opening similar to a mouth

otak = brain; mind; intellect

otot = muscle; sinew; tendon

paha = thigh; the part of a leg above the knee

pangkal paha = hip; groin; crotch

pankreas = pancreas; a body organ near the stomach that secretes juices

pantat = buttocks; butt; buns; posterior; rump; fanny

paru-paru = lungs; body organs used for breathing

payudara = breast; teat; female organ for feeding milk to offspring

pelipis = temple area (side of the head)

pelir = penis; male genitals

pelupuk mata = eyelid; the skin covering the front of the eyeball

pembuluh darah = blood vessel; blood vein

pembuluh nadi = artery; a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart

pergelangan kaki = ankle

perut = stomach; belly; gut; tummy

pinggang = waist; loin; mid-section of the torso

pinggul = hip; seat; rear end; haunches

pipi = cheek; the fleshy side of a person's mouth

pita suara = vocal cords

pori-pori = skin pores

puki = vagina; vulva; female genitals

punggung = a back; a part that is behind

puting susu = nipple of a female breast

rahang = jaw; jawbone; the bone where teeth are embedded

rahang atas = upper jawbone

rahang bawah = lower jawbone

rahim = womb; uterus

rambut = hair

rangka manusia = human skeleton

rektum = rectum; anus; the end point of the large intestine

retina = retina; the membrane at the back of the eyeball that senses light images

saraf = nerve; nerve fiber

sel darah = blood cell; corpuscle

sel tunas = stem cell; a cell that replicates itself

selangkangan = groin; crotch area

siku = elbow

tangan = arm; hand; forearm; wrist

tapak tangan = palm of the hand

telapak kaki = sole of the foot or shoe

telapak tangan = palm of the hand

telinga = ear

tenggorok = throat; larynx

testis = testicle; gonad

tonsil = tonsil; fleshy tissue at the back of the mouth

tubuh = body; the physical body; torso

tulang = bone

tulang belakang = backbone

tulang kering = shinbone; shank

tulang punggung = backbone

tulang rusuk rib; rib bone; roof rafter

tumit = a heel; the lower back part of a foot

urat = vein; muscle; sinew; nerve; tendon; fiber

urat nadi = artery

urat saraf = nerve

usus = intestines; bowels; entrails

vagina = vagina; a tube connecting the womb to the vulva in females

zakar = penis; the male sex organ


warna = color; tint; type; style

ungu = purple color; violet color; lilac color

sawo matang = light brown color; a common Indonesian skin color

putih = white; pure; clean

pirang = blond; a light reddish-brown color

pastel = pastel; a lighter or softer shade of a color

merah tua = crimson color; dark red color

merah muda = pink color

merah = red color

luntur = faded; discolored; lackluster; weakened; decreased

kuning = yellow (color)

keputihan = whitish; rather white; whiteness

kemerahan = reddish; ruddy; somewhat red; rather red

kekuningan = yellowness; yellowish; yellowy

kehitaman = blackness; darkness

kebiruan = bluish (color); rather blue

keabu-abuan = grayish (color); somewhat gray

hitam = black; dark

hijau = green (color); unripe (fruit, etc.)

biru muda = light blue color

biru laut = navy blue color

biru = blue

berwarna = being colored; having a certain color

beraneka warna = colorful; multicolored

abu-abu = gray; ash color


acar = a pickle; a preserved cucumber

adonan = dough; food batter; food paste; a mixture

air = water; juice; liquid; fluid

air dingin = cold water

air es = ice; ice water

air jeruk = orange juice; lemon juice; citrus juice

alat masak = kitchen utensils; cooking tools and equipment

alpokat = avocado; a small green fruit

anggur = wine; grape; grape vine with grapes

apel = apple

asam = sour; acidic; tart; bitter

asin = salty; salted; saline

ayam = chicken; fowl

babi = pig; swine; hog; pork

bakar = to burn; roast; bake; cook over a fire; set fire to

bawang merah = onion; shallots

bawang putih = garlic

bebek = duck; a type of web-footed bird that lives near water

beras = husked rice; uncooked rice

bergizi = to be nutritious; nourishing; nutritive; nutritional

bir = beer; a fermented alcoholic drink

biskuit = biscuit; cracker; a small cake of unleavened bread

buah = fruit; an object like a fruit; a piece; a unit

buah segar = fresh fruit

buah-buahan = fruits; many and varied fruits

bubur = porridge; a hot cereal food

bumbu = spice; seasoning; flavor

bumbu basah = fresh spices (not dried)

bumbu kering = dried spices

bumbu masak = cooking spices

bumbu-bumbu = condiments; spices; food seasoning

buncis = beans; green beans; string beans

cabai = chili; red pepper; pepper

cabe = chili; red pepper

cangkir = cup; mug

cengkeh = cloves; a type of aromatic spice

cokelat (coklat) = chocolate (to eat); chocolate color

cuka = vinegar; a sour acidic liquid used for preserving or preparing food

daftar makanan = menu; bill of fare

daging = meat; flesh; fruit flesh

dahaga = thirsty; desiring a drink

dekaf = decaf; decaffeinated; without caffeine

enak = delicious; tasty; delectable; pleasant; nice; savory

es = ice; frozen water

es krim = ice cream

es teh = iced tea

gado-gado = vegetable salad; a spicy peanut sauce food

gandum = wheat; wheat flour; grain crops that can be ground into flour

garam = salt

garpu = a fork

gelas = a drinking glass; a glass container

ginseng = ginseng; a type of medicinal root

gizi = nutrition; nourishment; nutrient

goreng = to fry; to be fried

gula = sugar

gula-gula = candy; sweets

gulai = spicy soup; sauce; gravy; curry soup; stew; goulash

haus = thirsty; eager; desirous

hidangan = prepared food; a meal; a course of food; a serving; an offering

ikan = fish

ikan laut = saltwater fish; fish from the ocean

jagung = corn; maize

jahe = ginger; a type of plant used as a cooking spice

jamur = mushroom; toadstool

jeruk = citrus fruit; oranges; lemons

jeruk manis = an orange; a type of citrus fruit grown on trees

jus = juice; the natural liquid contained in fruits and vegetables

jus buah = fruit juice

kacang = bean; peanut; pea; nut

kafe = cafe; restaurant

kafein = caffeine; a stimulant found in coffee and tea

kalori = calorie; a unit of heat; the energy potential of digested food

kambing = goat; sheep; mutton

karbohidrat = carbohydrate; a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

kari = curry; a special mixture of food spices

kecap (1) = soy sauce; soybean

kecap (2) = catsup; tomato ketchup

kecap asin = salty soy sauce (not sweet)

kecap manis = sweet soy sauce (not salty)

keju = cheese; a food product made from milk curds

kelapa = coconut; coconut palm tree

kentang = potato; spud

kerupuk = a crispy snack food chip made with flour and fish or shrimp

ketela = tubers; yams; cassava; tuberous plants

ketela pohon = cassava; a plant with an edible root used for making tapioca

ketimun = cucumber; a green fruit from a creeping plant that is often pickled

ketumbar = coriander; a type of aromatic spice

kismis = raisin; currant

koktail = cocktail; a mixed alcoholic drink

kol = cabbage; a type of green vegetable with a round edible head

kolesterol = cholesterol; a type of steroid alcohol found in body tissue

kopi = coffee

kopi bubuk = powdered coffee; ground coffee

krim = cream; the fatty substance in unprocessed milk; cream color

kuah = sauce; gravy; meat broth

kue = cake; pastry; cookie

kurma = date; a palm tree date

lada = pepper

lada hitam = black pepper

lada merah = red pepper

lapar = hungry; feeling a need to eat

lauk = a side dish of food (usually served with rice)

lauk-pauk = various foods; miscellaneous side dishes of food

lemak = fat; grease; blubber; lard from animal fat

madu = honey; a sweet nectar made by bees

makan = to eat; consume food

makan malam = dinner; evening meal

makan pagi = breakfast; morning meal

makan siang = lunch; mid-day meal

makanan = a meal; food; foodstuffs; cuisine

makanan kaleng = canned food

makan-makanan = foodstuffs; food; cuisine

mangga = mango; a tropical fruit with orange colored flesh

manisan = sweets; candy; confection; a food treat; sweetmeat

margarin = margarine; oleomargarine

martabak = pancake; a thin cake of fried batter often served at breakfast

masak = cooked; ripe; mature; prepared (food, etc.)

masakan = cooking; cuisine; a food course; food dish; cooked food

matang = ripe; mature; cooked; well-done; mellow

mentega = butter; a fatty substance derived from cream

mentimun = cucumber; a green fruit grown on a creeping plant

menu = menu; a list of available choices; a list of food items available

merica = pepper; white pepper

mi = noodles; instant noodles

mie = noodles; instant noodles

mie goreng = fried noodles

minuman = a beverage; a drink; refreshments

minuman keras = liquor; hard liquor; alcoholic beverage; strong drink; libation

minuman ringan = soft drink; a light beverage; lemonade; non-alcoholic beverage

minyak goreng = cooking oil

minyak kelapa = coconut oil; oil extracted from the flesh of the coconut

minyak sawit = palm oil; cooking oil extracted from the seeds of palm trees

nanas = pineapple; a type of sweet tropical fruit with yellow flesh

nangka = jack fruit; a type of fruit grown on a tree

nasi = cooked rice

nasi goreng = fried rice

nasi putih = cooked white rice

oranye = orange

pahit = bitter; tart; not sweet; without sugar (coffee, etc.)

panggang = to grill; roast; toast; bake; broil

papaya = papaya; a type of tropical fruit

pasta = pasta; various forms of dried flour paste such as macaroni or spaghetti

pedas = spicy; spicy hot flavoring; pungent

pepaya = papaya; papaw; a type of tropical fruit

permen = candy; peppermint; lollipop

piring = dish; plate

pisang = banana

pisau = knife

pizza = pizza

protein = protein; an essential element in nutritional food

puding = pudding; a thick creamy dessert food

rambutan = litchi fruit; a small hairy red-skinned fruit; a "hairy cherry"

rasa = feeling; sensation; thinking; taste; flavor; notion

rebus = boiled; stewed; brewed

rendah kalori = low calorie

rendang = a food dish of spicy meat cooked in coconut milk

restoran = restaurant; cafe

roti = bread

salad = salad; a food serving of various raw vegetables

sambal = hot sauce; spicy sauce; chili sauce

santan = coconut milk

santan kelapa = coconut milk

santap = to eat and drink; dine; to banquet; to absorb

santapan = food; a meal; grub; chow

saos = sauce

sarapan pagi = breakfast

sate = a food of skewered meat with vegetables; a kabob meat dish

saus = sauce

saus cabai = chili sauce

saus tomat = catsup; ketchup

sayur = vegetable; a class of edible food plants

sayur mayur = vegetables in general; all sorts of vegetables; fresh vegetables

sayuran = vegetables; edible food plants

sayur-sayuran = various vegetables; wide variety of vegetables

segar = fresh; new; fit; healthy

selera = appetite; taste; desire for food; desires in general; wants

semangka = a melon; a watermelon

semangka air = watermelon; a large melon with red and watery flesh

sendok = a spoon; ladle; a scooping utensil

sendok makan = tablespoon; dessert spoon

sendok teh = teaspoon

sereal = cereal; a food product made from processed grain

singkong = cassava; a plant with an edible starchy root used to make tapioca

sosis = sausage; a spicy meat product like a hot dog

soto = a spicy soup; a meat soup

soto ayam = chicken broth soup

spageti = spaghetti; a type of long and thin pasta

sup = soup; a type of hot liquid food

susu = milk

susu bubuk = powdered milk

tahu = soybean curds; tofu; bean curds

tanpa gula = without sugar

teh = tea

telur = egg

telur goreng = fried egg

telur rebus = boiled egg

teman nasi = side dish of food with rice

tempe = soybean cake; fermented soy cake

tepung = flour; powder; ground meal

tepung beras = rice flour

tepung terigu = wheat flour

terasi = fish paste; shrimp paste; food paste

terigu = wheat; cereal

tiram = oyster; a type of edible shellfish; a type of mollusc

toko makanan = food store; grocery store

tomat = tomato; a type of red vegetable grown on climbing plants

tuak = palm wine; toddy; rice beer; sago beer

ubi = an edible tuber; a root plant food crop

udang = shrimp; prawn; lobster

warung = food stall; eating place; small restaurant; diner

wortel = carrot; a vegetable with an orange colored root

zaitun = olives; olive tree


air panas = hot springs; hot water

air terjun = waterfall; a cascade of water

anak sungai = stream; tributary river

arkeolog = archaeologist; a person who studies archaeology

arkeologi = archaeology; the study of ancient peoples and objects

batu = stone; rock

batu bara = coal

benua = continent; empire; realm; kingdom

besi = iron

bumi = earth; planet earth; soil; ground; land

danau = lake; pool; reservoir; body of standing water

darat = land; shore; coast; mainland

daratan = continent; mainland; landmass; a wide expanse of land

dunia = world; earthly life; planet earth

ekosistem = ecosystem; the system of living creatures in a certain area

garis lintang = latitude; horizontal line

gempa bumi = earthquake; a shaking of the earth's surface

geofisika = geophysics; the physics of planet earth

geografi = geography; study of earth's physical features

geografis = geographical; regarding geography

geolog = geologist; a person who studies geology

geologi = geology; the study of the earth's crust and subsurface

geologis = geologic; geological; regarding geology

gletser = glacier; a slowly moving river of ice

global = global; worldwide

globalisasi = globalization; the linking of many parts of the world into a single "community"

gua = cave; cavern; grotto

gunung = mountain; hill

gunung api = volcano; fire mountain

gunung es = iceberg; a huge chunk of floating ice in the sea

gurun = desert; wasteland; wilderness

hutan = forest; jungle; woods; woodlands

kaldera = caldera; the collapsed remnants of a volcano cone

kerikil = gravel; pebbles; small rocks used to surface roads, for construction, etc.

khatulistiwa = equator; the imaginary line around the earth

kolam = pond; pool; basin; tank

kutub selatan = south pole

kutub utara = north pole

laut = sea; ocean

lautan = ocean; sea; a wide expanse of sea

lava = lava; the hot liquid matter expelled from a volcano

lembah = valley; basin; trough

muara = estuary; river mouth; the place where a river ends

nusa = island

nusantara = archipelago; Indonesian archipelago; island empire

padang = a field; a plain

pantai = beach; coast; shoreline; seaside; seashore

pasir = sand; sandy beach

peta = a picture; map; chart; sign

pulau = island

puncak = summit; peak; top; acme; pinnacle; highlight; climax

selat = strait (water passage); a narrow sea channel between two land masses

sungai = river; flowing water

tanah = earth; land; soil; ground; dirt; realty; real estate

tanjung = cape; promontory; a projection of land into a body of water

tektonik = tectonics; large-scale changes and movements of the earth's crust

teluk = bay; gulf; bight; inlet

topografi = topography; natural land features

tropis = tropical; regarding the tropics or the climate in the tropics

vulkanik = volcanic; regarding a volcano or the matter expelled from a volcano

vulkanologi = vulcanology; the study of volcanic activity


akomodasi = accommodation; housing or lodging facilities

bantal = pillow; cushion; pad

belboi = bellhop; bell boy

handuk = towel; an absorbent cloth for drying the body

hotel = hotel

hotel berbintang = a star-rated hotel

hotel murah = a cheap hotel; inexpensive hotel

kasur = mattress; a thick sleeping pad

kipas angin = electric fan

losmen = inn; cheap hotel; family-run inn

penginapan = inexpensive hotel; a lodge; inn; a place to spend the night

sarung bantal = pillowcase; a cloth pillow cover

selimut = a blanket; a cover

seprei = a sheet; a bedsheet

televisi = television

tilam = mattress; sleeping cushion


abjad = alphabet; the entire group of letters used in a language

abreviasi = abbreviation; a shortened form of a word

adjektiva = adjective; a type of word that describes or modifies nouns

afiks = affix; a prefix, suffix or confix

ahli bahasa = linguist; a language specialist

akar kata = root word; base word

akhiran = a suffix; a letter or letters added at the end of a word to create a new word

akronim = acronym; a word formed from selected letters of two or more words

alfabet = alphabet; a listing of all letters used in a language

alinea = paragraph; a grouping of related sentences

apostrof = apostrophe; a type of punctuation mark

awalan = a prefix; a set of letters attached to the front of a word

bab = chapter; article; paragraph

baca = to read; peruse

bacaan = reading material; literature

bahasa = language; speech; polite manners

bahasa asing = foreign language

bahasa daerah = local language; vernacular; dialect

bahasa ibu = mother language

bahasa Indonesia = Indonesian language

bahasa Inggris = English language

bahasa isyarat = sign language; hand signal language

bahasa lisan = spoken language; verbal language

bahasa tubuh = body language; body movements as a form of communication

bicara = speaking; talking; discussing; discussion; a talk

buku = book

buta huruf = illiterate; unable to read or write

diksi = diction; the selection and use of words

dosen = lecturer; university lecturer; professor

dwibahasa = bilingual; having or knowing two languages

ejaan = spelling; saying or writing the letters of a word correctly

etimologi = etymology; the science and study of word origins and meanings

frasa = phrase; a group of words forming a mental concept

gaya bahasa = language style; writing style

gramatikal = grammatical; regarding grammar

hafal = to memorize; commit to memory; to know by heart; learn by rote

huruf = a letter of the alphabet; a written character

huruf abjad = letters of the alphabet

huruf besar = capitalized; capital letter

huruf kecil = lower case letter of the alphabet; not capitalized letter

huruf miring = italics; italicized letter or character

huruf tebal = boldface type letter or character; bold lettering

ilmu bahasa = linguistics; the science and study of language

istilah = word; term; terminology

jenis kata = word type (noun, verb, etc.)

kalimat = sentence; clause; saying; creed

kamus = dictionary; a lexicon; a reference book of words

kamus dwibahasa = bilingual dictionary; a translation dictionary

kamus lengkap = a complete dictionary; unabridged dictionary; comprehensive dictionary

kamus ringkas = concise dictionary

kamus saku = pocket dictionary

kata = word; term; saying; phrase; remark

kata benda = noun; a substantive noun

kata dasar = word root; word base; radical word; root word

kata depan = preposition; a word used to create phrases that modify verbs, nouns or adjectives

kata ganti = pronoun; a word used as a substitute for a noun or proper noun

kata kerja = verb; an word that expresses action

kata kerja tak beraturan = irregular verbs

kata keterangan = adverb

kata sambung = conjunction

kata seru = exclamation word; interjection; expletive

kata sifat = adjective; a word that qualifies or describes a noun or pronoun

kata tugas = working words such as prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, articles and particles

kata turunan = kata baru yang diturunkan dari kata dasar yang mendapat imbuhan.

kiasan = analogy; metaphor; allusion; allegory; figure of speech

klausul = clause; a group of words that forms part of a sentence

koma = comma; a punctuation mark indicating a pause ( , )

konfiks = confix; circumfix; a special prefix and suffix added together to another word

konotasi = a connotation; an implication; a suggested meaning

kutipan = a quote; copy; citation; quotation; excerpt; extract; passage

lafal = pronunciation; the way words are spoken or pronounced

lafal = pronunciation; the style of pronouncing or saying words

leksikon = lexicon; a dictionary; language vocabulary

linguistik = linguistic; regarding language

logat = dialect; accent; pronunciation

logat asing = foreign accent; an alien sounding dialect

makna = meaning; significance; sense; connotation

makna kiasan = figurative meaning; a meaning other than a literal meaning

menurut abjad = alphabetical order; alphabetically; according to the letters of the alphabet

metafor (metafora) = metaphor; a word or term used in a figurative way

morfologi = morphology; the study of the structure and formation of things

nomina = noun; a word used in reference to a person, place or thing

omongan = talk; a chat; a word; gossip; a manner of speech

partikel = particle; a grammatical unit smaller than a word

penerjemah = translator; interpreter

penerjemahan = translation; translating; deciphering

penuturan = expression; pronunciation; announcement; information

percakapan = a conversation; dialogue; discussion; interview; talk

prefiks = a prefix; a standard set of letters attached to the front of a word

preposisi = preposition; a word used to clarify relationships in sentences

pronomina = pronoun; a word that can be used in place of a noun

sastra = literature; language

sastrawan = a learned person; a man of letters; a scholar

seminar = seminar; a short educational course or meeting

sufiks = suffix; an affix added to the end of a word

suku kata = syllable; the smallest unit of pronunciation in a word

tafsir = interpretation; commentary; explanation

tanda baca = punctuation mark

tanda koma = comma; a punctuation mark indicating a pause or separation of parts ( , )

tanda kurung = parenthesis - ( )

tanda kurung kurawal = parenthesis with wavy lines - { }

tanda kurung siku = brackets - [ ]

tanda kutip = quotation mark; marks used to indicate quoted words (" ")

tanda tanya = question mark; a punctuation mark used to indicate a question ( ? )

tata bahasa = grammar; rules of a language

terjemahan = a translation; interpretation

terminologi = terminology; specialized terms or words

titik = a period; dot; point; decimal point

titik dua = colon; a punctuation mark with one dot above another ( : )

toko buku = bookshop; bookstore

tutur = speech; talk; utterance; language

ucapan = phrase; statement; expression; pronunciation; remark; utterance

uji = exam; test; trial; experiment

ungkapan = an expression; idiom; phrase; cliche; platitude; gesture


ahli bedah = surgeon; a doctor who performs surgery

akupunktur = acupuncture; a type of medical treatment applied by inserting needles

alergi = allergy; an adverse physical reaction to foods, pollen, etc.

ambulans = ambulance; a type of emergency medical vehicle

antasida = antacid; a substance that neutralizes acids

antibiotik = antibiotic; a substance that destroys bacteria

antidota = antidote; medicine that counteracts a poison

antiseptik = antiseptic; a substance that kills bacteria

apotek = pharmacy; drug store; dispensary; chemist's shop; apothecary

asma = asthma; an unhealthy medical condition which causes difficult breathing

aspirin = aspirin; a type of pain killing medicine

bakteri = bacteria; a type of microorganism; a microbe

balut = bandage; wrap; dressing for a wound

batuk = a cough

bedah = surgery; medical operation; dissection

bengkak = swollen; varicose; having tumors

berak = to defecate; discharge feces; to have a bowel movement

bisa = poison; venom

bisu = mute; dumb; noiseless; obtuse; unable to speak

bisu tuli = deaf and mute; deaf and dumb

bisul = ulcer; abscess; tumor; a boil; carbuncle; pimple

bius = drugs; anesthesia

bunting = pregnant; having a developing offspring in the womb

buta = blind; sightless; ignorant

buta warna = color blind; unable to distinguish colors by sight

cacar = smallpox; a contagious disease that causes high fevers and skin marks

cacat = defect; deformity; flaw; blemish; handicap; fault; stain; mar

campak = measles; an infectious virus disease which causes a red skin rash

demam = fever; illness with fevers

diabetes = diabetes; a physical disorder of excess sugar in the blood

diagnosa = diagnosis; analysis of the cause of physical ailments by observing symptoms

diare = diarrhea; an illness with excessive looseness and discharge of feces

dokter = doctor; physician

dokter gigi = dentist

dokter hewan = veterinarian; an animal doctor

dokter jiwa = psychiatrist

dokter kandungan = obstetrician; gynecologist

dokter umum = general practice doctor

efek samping = side effect; an effect of a treatment that is in addition to the desired effect

farmasi = pharmacy; dispensary; a place for selling and dispensing medicinal drugs

flu = flu; influenza

flu burung = bird flu

gatal = itchy; irritated; regarding a skin irritation that creates a desire to scratch

gawat darurat = hospital emergency room; a critical emergency

generik = generic; general; fungible; not special or specific

gigi palsu = false teeth; dentures

gila = mad; insane; crazy; absurd; delirious; deranged

haid = menstruation; a woman's monthly discharge of blood from the womb

hama = disease; infection; pest; an insect or small animal that attacks crops

hamil = being pregnant; having a pregnancy; to conceive

hepatitis = hepatitis; an inflammation of the liver

hipertensi = hypertension; extreme tension; abnormally high blood pressure

holistik = holistic; whole; treating the whole body (for health care)

hormon = hormone; a secretion from a body gland that stimulates growth

imunisasi = immunization; making immune

infeksi = infection; contamination of disease in the body

injeksi = injection; something injected

iritasi = irritation; an annoyance; something that irritates

jamu = dried herbs; medicinal herbs

jatuh sakit = to become sick; fall ill

kacamata = eyeglasses; spectacles

kadas = a type of skin rash; skin fungus; a blotch

kanker = cancer; a malignant growth or tumor

karantina = quarantine; isolation to prevent the spread of illness

kardiologi = cardiology; the branch of medicine concerned with the heart

keabnormalan = abnormality; a condition that is not normal

keadaan darurat = emergency; state of emergency; exigency

kencing = to urinate; to pee; to discharge urine from the body

kesehatan = health; well being; sanity

kesehatan jiwa = mental well being; mental health

keseleo = sprained; wrenched; injured a limb by twisting or wrenching

klinik = clinic; a health care facility

kudis = scabies; itch; skin eruption; skin rash; mange; a scab

kurang gizi = malnutrition; an unhealthy condition caused by a lack of nutritional food

kurang tidur = insomnia; sleeplessness

luka = wound; injury; bruise; a skin cut

luka bakar = a burn injury

luka berat = badly wounded; seriously injured

luka parah = badly wounded; seriously injured

lumpuh = lame; paralyzed; immobilized

maag = stomach illness; a gastric problem or disorder

mabuk = drunk; intoxicated; inebriated

mabuk darat = nauseous motion sickness on land

mabuk laut = seasick; nauseous sickness from motion at sea

mabuk udara = nauseous sickness from motion in the air

malaria = malaria; a tropical fever from parasites

mamogram = mammogram; an x-ray to test for breast cancer in women

masuk angin = intestinal or stomach gas; flatulence

medis = medical; regarding medicine and health care

menulari = to infect; contaminate; expose

mual = nauseous; queasy; sickening; disgusting; odious

muntah = to vomit; throw up; retch; upchuck; spew out

nafas = a breath; air taken into and expelled from the lungs

nanah = pus; the fluid formed in an inflamed abscess or wound

neurologis = neurological; concerning nervous system disorders

nutrisi = nutrition; nourishment

obat = medicine; drugs; medication; therapy; remedy

obat batuk = cough medicine

obat bius = drugs; anesthetic; intoxicant; narcotic

pasien = patient; a person receiving medical care; a sufferer of illness, injury, etc.

penawar = antidote; remedy; cure; medicine

penderita = a sufferer; a patient; a victim

penyakit = illness; sickness; disease; a sore; a health disturbance

perawatan = nursing; treating; maintaining; caring for; tending; upkeep

perban = bandage; wound dressing

pertolongan pertama = first aid; emergency medical treatment or assistance

pil = pill; tablet; capsule

pilek = the condition of having a cold; sick with a cold

plester = bandage

rawat = to nurse; treat; repair

rumah sakit = hospital; clinic; infirmary

sakit = sick; painful; ill; aching; ailing; sore; hurt

sakit gigi = toothache

sakit kepala = headache

sakit perut = stomach ache

salah cerna = indigestion

sehat = healthy; healthful; fit; sound; well; salubrious; salutary

selesma = a cold (illness); an illness with a runny nose; influenza

steril = sterile; aseptic; free of contamination

sterilisasi = sterilization; activity of making sterile

stroke = stroke; a medical problem caused by a blockage of blood flow to the brain

suntik = to inject; vaccinate

tandu = a stretcher; litter; palanquin; sedan chair

tbc = tuberculosis; an infectious lung disease

tebece = tuberculosis; an infectious lung disease

tekanan darah = blood pressure

terapi = therapy; a type of medical treatment

tuberkulosis = tuberculosis; an infectious disease of the lungs

tumor = a tumor; an abnormal growth of body tissue that can often lead to death

tusuk jarum = acupuncture

urine = urine; waste fluids discharged from the kidney

vaksin = vaccine; a substance used for immunization

vaksinasi = vaccination; the activity of giving vaccine; a shot; an inoculation

virus = virus; a type of harmful microscopic organism


bak mandi = bath tub; a place for bathing the body

bedak = talc; powder; a fine body powder

bersin = to sneeze

buang air kecil = to urinate

buang air besar = to defecate

cambang = whiskers; facial hair; beard; sideburns

cermin = a mirror; a reflection

cuci = to wash; to clean using water

cucian = laundry; washing

cukur = to shave; to remove body hair with a razor

detergen = detergent; a cleaning substance; laundry soap

gaya rambut = hair style

gincu = lipstick; a woman's cosmetic for coloring the lips

gosok gigi = toothbrush; a brush for cleaning teeth

gunting = scissors; clippers for cutting

gunting rambut = hair scissors

jam tangan = watch; wristwatch

jerawat = pimple; acne; skin rash

kacamata hitam = sunglasses; dark glasses

kain haid = sanitary napkins

kalung = necklace; a decorative strand worn around the neck

ketombe = dandruff; small scales of dead skin from the scalp

kondom = condom; a contraceptive device for men

kosmetik = cosmetics; makeup

lipstik = lipstick; a cosmetic for coloring the lips

mandi = to bathe; wash oneself

mode baju = clothes style

parfum = perfume; cologne; a pleasant smelling fluid for scenting the body 

pasta gigi = toothpaste; dentifrice

pembalut wanita = woman's sanitary napkin; a tampon

sabun = soap; a compound used for washing and cleaning

sampo = shampoo; liquid soap that foams for hair, carpets, etc.


adat = custom; tradition; traditional law; courtesy; manners

adat istiadat = custom; tradition; traditional ceremony

basa-basi = courteousness; courteous talk; ceremonial manners; etiquette

bayi = baby

beradab = to be courteous; being cultured; civilized; polite; well-mannered

bertemu = to meet; encounter; find

biadab = impolite; uncivilized; rude; impertinent; insolent; crass; crude

budaya = culture; civilization; intelligence

cewek = girl; gal; lass; chick; informal address to a girl

da-da = goodbye; bye-bye

diri sendiri = yourself; oneself; ego

duda = widower; divorced man

engkau = you

etika = ethics; ethos; morals; values; scruples

etiket = etiquette; social manners

halo = hello

harap = please; if you please; polite request

harap ulangi = please repeat

jabat tangan = handshake

janda = widow; widower; divorced person

kamu = you

kanak = child

kebudayaan = culture; civility; civilization

laki-laki = male person; a man

leluhur = ancestor; forefather; predecessor; progenitor

maaf = pardon me; forgive me; excuse me; sorry

minta = to ask kindly; request; invite; beg; apply for; solicit

minta maaf = apologize; to beg pardon

mu = you; a second person pronoun; short form of "kamu"

nona = miss (female)

nyonya = respectful address to a married lady; Mrs.

panjang umur = longevity; long life

perempuan = girl; woman; female person

salam = greetings; regards; hello; peace; salute

salut = a salute; respectful greeting; salutation; a toast (good health, friendship, etc.)

sampai jumpa = see you later; until we meet again

saudara = brother; sister; sibling; gentleman; a person like a brother

saudari = female sister; female relative; lady; Mrs.

selamat = congratulations; greetings; regards

selamat datang = welcome (on arrival)

selamat jalan = goodbye; have a nice journey

selamat makan = good appetite

selamat malam = good evening

selamat minum = enjoy your drink

selamat pagi = good morning

selamat siang = good day

selamat sore = good afternoon

selamat tidur = good night

selamat tinggal = good-bye (to someone staying)

silahkan = please; to ask; to invite

suguhan = a treat offered to guests; food for entertaining; something served to guests

tata cara = etiquette; manners; ethics; traditions; customs; procedure; way of doing

terima kasih = thank you

tolong = please help; please assist

tuan = sir; mister; polite address to older men, especially foreigners


abang = older brother; older friend

adik = younger brother or sister; younger friend

adik ipar = brother-in-law or sister-in-law

adik lelaki = younger brother

adik perempuan = younger sister

adik tiri = step brother or step sister

anak = child; offspring; issue

anak angkat = adopted child; stepchild; foster child

anak bungsu = youngest child in a family

anak cucu = progeny; descendant; offspring

anak emas = favorite child; fortunate child

anak haram = illegitimate child; a child born to an unmarried woman; bastard

anak laki-laki = son; boy

anak perempuan = daughter; girl

anak sulung = eldest child; oldest child in a family

anak tiri = stepchild; a spouse's child from a previous marriage

anak-anak = infants; small children

ayah = father

bang = older brother; a person like an older brother

bapak = father; a person like a father

bapak mertua = father-in-law

bini = wife; spouse (often used impolitely)

bini muda = additional wife; mistress; younger wife; second wife

bini tua = first wife

biro jodoh = mate finding bureau; spouse finding agency; dating service

bu = mother

bujangan = a bachelor; an unmarried person; a celibate

bulan madu = honeymoon

bunda = mother

bungsu = youngest (child); most recent; latest

cerai = to separate; divorce; split up; part; spread; dissociate

cicit = a great grandchild

cincin kawin = wedding ring

cucu = grandchild

famili = family; kin

gadis = a virgin girl; maiden; damsel; lass

ibu = mother; mom; ma; Mrs.

ibu mertua = mother-in-law; the mother of one's spouse

istri (isteri) = wife; married woman

kakak = older sibling; older sister or brother

kakek = grandfather; grandpa; grampa; gramps

kawin = to get married; to marry; to wed

keluarga = family; kin; relations; relatives

keponakan = niece; nephew

kerabat = relatives; kin; family relations

mahar = bride price; dowry; wedding present

marga = clan; tribal group; group

nama depan = first name

nama keluarga = family name; surname

nama panggilan = nickname

nenek = grandmother; granny; grandma

nenek moyang = ancestor; ancestry; a forefather; progenitor

nikah = marriage; matrimony

om = uncle; a friendly term for an older adult man

orang tua = parent; older person

pak = father; mister; respectful address to a father or a person like a father

paman = uncle; the brother of a parent; the husband of an aunt

papa = father

pasangan hidup = lifetime partner; a spouse

pengantin = bride; bridegroom; bride and groom; persons engaged to be married

pengantin baru newlyweds; a recently married couple

pengantin lelaki bridegroom; groom

pengantin perempuan bride

putra = prince; son

putri = princess; daughter

saudara laki-laki = brother

saudara perempuan = sister

sepupu = cousin; a child of a person's aunt or uncle

yatim piatu = an orphan; a child without living parents


alamat = address; title; inscription; sign; hint; indication; presage; mark

angkutan = transportation; transport; transporter; forwarding

becak = a three-wheel taxi cab; carrier cab; pedicab; trishaw cab; rickshaw

bensin = benzene; gasoline; petrol

berangkat = to depart; take off; leave; start

berapa jauh ? = how far ?

berapa lama ? = how long ?

berhenti = to stop; quit; rest; pause; halt; desist; cease

berkemah = to camp; camp out; camping; to live in a tent for a short time

berlibur = to have vacation; liberty or spare time; being free from work or school

bertualang = to wander; roam about; roaming

biro perjalanan = travel bureau

cenderamata = souvenir; memento

daftar tunggu = waiting list; a list of people waiting

dilarang = forbidden; disallowed; prohibited; proscribed; precluded; banned

dilarang masuk = no entrance; no trespassing; keep out; no admittance

halte bus = bus stop; a place where a bus stops for passengers

harap antre = please queue; queue up please; please line up

hari libur = free day; day off; holiday

hari raya = holiday; Islamic celebration of Idul Fitri

imigrasi = immigration; the activity of moving residence to a new country

informasi = information; news; knowledge

interlokal = long distance; long distance telephone call

internasional = international; between or among nations

jadwal = a schedule; program; list; timetable; register

jadwal keberangkatan = departures schedule

jadwal kedatangan = arrivals schedules

jadwal perjalanan = travel schedule; itinerary

jadwal waktu = timetable; a schedule of times

jalan kaki = walk; hike; stroll; march

jalan keluar = exit; way out

jalan pendek = shortcut

jalan-jalan = to take a walk; to be walking; out for a stroll

jauh = distant; far away; off

jembatan = bridge; overpass; pier; jetty

kamar kecil = toilet; bathroom; restroom; WC; commode

kamar mandi = bathroom; washroom; restroom

kantor biro travel = travel bureau

kantor pariwisata = tourism office

karcis = ticket; coupon

karcis bagasi = baggage ticket

karcis masuk = admission ticket

karcis pulang balik = return ticket; a round-trip ticket

kedutaan besar = embassy

kelas = class; grade; rank

kelas ekonomi = economy class

kelas satu = first class; prime

keliling = circumference; perimeter; driving around; environs; around

keliling dunia = traveling around the world

keluar = to exit; go out; leave; issue; emerge

kenang-kenangan = souvenir; memories; reminiscence; remembrance; memento; keepsake

kereta = carriage; cart; wagon; car

keterangan = information; explanation; declaration; comment; assertion

kios = kiosk; news stand; small shop

kompas = compass; an instrument with a magnetic needle that indicates direction

konsul = consul; a government's representative in a foreign city

konsul jenderal = consul general; a government's chief representative in a foreign city

konsulat = consulate; the office of a consul and consul general in a foreign city

kunci = a key; a lock; a wrench

lentera = a lantern; a lamp

liburan = holiday; vacation; furlough

lift = a lift; an elevator

loket = ticket window; teller window; box office

lorong = alley; path; lane; road; way; aisle; hallway; passageway

menjelajah = to travel; explore; look into; traverse; cross; rove

nada panggil = call signal; telephone dial tone

objek wisata (obyek wisata) = tourism object; tourist attraction

orang asing = foreigner; stranger; person from a foreign country

pabean = customhouse; customs

paket wisata = tourism package

pandu = a guide; scout; pilot; navigator; boy scout

para penumpang = passengers

pariwisata = tourism; a tour group; a tour

pasfoto = passport style photo; a small photo of a person's upper body

paspor = passport; a personal identity document issued by a government

pelancong = sightseer; traveler; tourist; walker; wayfarer

pelancongan = sightseeing; tourism; trip; a walk; a getaway

penumpang = passenger; crew member

perjalanan = excursion; trip; journey; sojourn; travel; passage; outing

pulang pergi = round trip; a commute between home and work

pulsa = telephone billing unit for time used

ransel = backpack; rucksack; knapsack

reservasi = reservation

solar = diesel fuel; automotive diesel fuel

stasiun = station; terminal; terminus

surat jalan = travel permit; a pass

suvenir = a souvenir; a memento; a small item kept as a remembrance

tas tidur = sleeping bag

telepon = telephone

tenda = tent; awning; hood

terminal = terminal; terminus; station

tiket = ticket

tur = a tour; a trip around

turis = tourist; a sightseer; a person who travels for pleasure

turisme = tourism; the industry related to tourists

visa = visa; an official permit allowing a person to enter a foreign country

w c = toilet; water closet; bathroom; restroom

wisata = to tour; to travel

wisatawan = tourist; traveler; a person who travels for pleasure


bandar udara = airport

helikopter = helicopter

kapal terbang = airplane

kopilot = copilot; the person who assists a pilot in flying an airplane

lapangan terbang = airport; airstrip

lapangan udara = airport; airstrip

pesawat jet = jet; a fast type of airplane

pesawat terbang = airplane

pilot = pilot; the person flying an airplane; a person guiding a ship to safe docking

terbang = to fly; to take off into the air; to be airborne

awak pesawat = flight crew; group of workers on an airplane


batas kecepatan = speed limit; a limit on allowable speed of travel

gerbang tol = toll gate; toll booth gate

jalan = street; road; path; way; course; journey; career

jalan buntu = cul-de-sac; end of the road

jalan layang = road overpass; flyover bridge

jalan raya = main road; highway; freeway; expressway

jalan tol = toll road; turnpike; expressway

jalanan = path; road; way

jalur = a stripe; strip; lane; line; course

jalur sebra = crosswalk; pedestrian crossing; zebra stripe road crossing

kanan = right (direction)

kiri = left (direction)

peta jalan = road map

pusat kota = city center

rambu-rambu = traffic signs; road signals


dermaga = wharf; pier; boat dock; jetty; quay

feri = ferry; a boat for transport of passengers and vehicles

jambatan = a bridge; trestle; jetty

kapal = a boat; ship; sea vessel; sea craft

kapal laut = boat; ship; sea vessel; seagoing vessel

kapal layar = sailboat; sailing vessel

kapal motor = motor powered boat

kapal penumpang = passenger vessel

layar = a sail

layar besar = main sail; the largest sail on a ship

nakhoda = ship captain; captain; skipper; pilot; commander of a vessel

navigasi = navigation; directing the course of travel for a vessel, vehicle, aircraft, etc.

ombak = a sea wave; a wave; surf; breaker

pelabuhan = harbor; port; anchorage

pelabuhan laut = harbor; seaport; anchorage

pelampung = life jacket; life preserver; pontoon; buoy; floating object

pelaut = sailor; seaman; mariner; mate

perahu = traditional wooden sailing ship; trading vessel

perahu layar = sailboat

peta laut = nautical chart


gerbong = train coach car; railway car; railway carriage; wagon

kereta api = train; railroad train

lokomotif = locomotive; a train engine; an engine or driving force


ban = tire; tyre (British)

ban dalam = tire tube; inner tube

ban kempis = flat tire; a deflated tire

bengkel mobil = auto service station; vehicle repair shop

bus (bis) = bus; a coach vehicle that is able to transport many passengers

kenalpot = exhaust pipe; vehicle muffler

kendaraan = passenger vehicle or conveyance; car; transportation

lalu lintas = traffic; the movement of vehicles on a road; the flow of things in general

mekanik = mechanic; a person who repairs machinery

minibus = minibus; minivan

minyak mesin = engine oil

minyak rem = brake fluid

mobil = automobile; car; motorcar; passenger vehicle

montir = mechanic; repairman

motor = motor; engine; vehicle with motor

parkir = to park

pedal rem = brake pedal

persneling = a vehicle gear; a transmission

persneling otomatis = automatic transmission; a transmission that shifts gears automatically

plat nomor = license plate

pompa ban = tire pump

pompa bensin = gas pump; gas station

rem = brakes; stopping mechanism

rem darurat = emergency brake

rem tangan = hand brake

roda = wheel

roda belakang = rear wheel

roda depan = front wheel

roda dua = a vehicle with two wheels; motorcycle; bicycle

sabuk kursi = safety seat belt

sepeda motor = motorcycle; motorbike

sopir = chauffeur; driver

taksi = taxi; taxi cab

tapis udara = air filter

terminal bus = bus terminal; bus station


air bah = a flood; an inundation; an overflow

angin = wind; breeze

angin kencang = strong wind

awan = a cloud; cloudiness

badai = storm; hurricane; tornado; typhoon; tempest; gale

barometer = barometer; an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure

berawan = being cloudy; clouded; having an overcast sky

cahaya matahari = sunshine; sunlight

Celsius = Celsius; centigrade temperature

cuaca = weather; atmospheric conditions

curah hujan = rainfall; a rain shower

derajat = degree of temperature; extent; grade; value; rank

derajat Celsius = degrees Celsius

derajat Fahrenheit = degrees Fahrenheit

halilintar = thunderbolt; lightning flash; bolt of lightning

hujan = rain; rainfall; precipitation

hujan gerimis = drizzle; drizzling rain; a light rain

hujan lebat = downpour; heavy rain

hujan salju = snowfall

iklim = climate; sphere; zone; atmosphere

iklim panas = a hot climate

iklim sedang = temperate climate zone; a mild climate area

iklim tropis = tropics climate zone; the hot climate area between the tropical latitudes

kabut = fog; mist; haze

kabut asap = smog; a haze formed from smoke and fog (or from vehicle emissions)

kemarau = dry period; dry season; drought

kering = dry; arid; barren

langit berawan = cloudy sky

langit cerah = clear sky

mendung = a cloud; a visible mass of water vapor in the atmosphere

musim = season; monsoon

musim dingin = winter; cold season

musim gugur = autumn; fall season

musim hujan = rainy season

musim kemarau = dry season

musim panas = summer; hot season; summertime

musim semi = spring season; springtime

pelangi = rainbow; a colorful arch that appears in the sky

peta cuaca = weather map

petir = thunderbolt; lightning

prakiraan cuaca = weather forecast; a prediction of upcoming weather

ramalan cuaca = weather forecast

salju = snow; frozen rain in the form of white flakes

sejuk = cold; cool; chilly

siklon = cyclone; a large circular storm with very strong winds

suhu = temperature

temperatur = temperature; a measurement of the degree of heat or cold

udara = air; atmosphere; weather


bentuk = a form; shape; style; type; model; figure; curve; bend

bulat = round; globular; circular; spherical; chubby

bulat panjang = ellipse; an elongated oval; an oblong shape

bulatan = a circle; sphere; orb; a round or spherical object

bundar = round; spherical; circular

bundaran = a circle; ring; round object; roundabout traffic circle

edaran = circular; having a circular shape

genting = hourglass shape; narrow passage; mountain pass; isthmus; a strait

kerucut = a cone; a shape with a circular base that tapers to a point at the top

kubik = cubic; cubical; cube shaped; three-dimensional

lingkar = a circle; rim; coil; perimeter; circumference

lingkaran = a circle; cycle; coil; circumference; circuit

oktagon = octagon; an eight-sided figure

oval = oval; an elongated circle; egg shaped

parabola = parabola; a shape like a bowl with an open curved surface

paralel = parallel; side by side and continuously spaced the same distance apart

persegi = a square; a four-sided figure with equal sides and angles

persegi empat = quadrangle; a square; four-sided figure

persegi tiga = triangle; three-sided figure

segi empat = quadrangle; four-sided figure

segi tiga = triangle; three-sided figure

silinder = cylinder; an object shaped like a tube or pipe


by TruAlfa & 

English English Indonesian Indonesian

Numbers Numbers 

minus one million -1,000,000 -1.000.000 minus satu juta

minus one thousand -1,000 -1.000 minus seribu

minus ten, negative ten -10 -10 minus sepuluh

minus five, negative five -5 -5 minus lima

minus one, negative one -1 -1 minus satu

zero 0 0 nol, kosong

one hundredth 1/100 1/100 seperseratus

one fifteenth 1/15 1/15 seperlima belas

one tenth 1/10 1/10 sepersepuluh

one ninth 1/9 1/9 sepersembilan

one eighth 1/8 1/8 seperdelapan

one seventh 1/7 1/7 sepertujuh

one sixth 1/6 1/6 seperenam

one fifth 1/5 1/5 seperlima

one fourth 1/4 1/4 seperempat

one third 1/3 1/3 sepertiga

one half 1/2 1/2 setengah

two thirds 2/3 2/3 dua pertiga

three fourths 3/4 3/4 tiga perempat

five eighths 5/8 5/8 lima perdelapan

four fifths 4/5 4/5 empat perlima

nine tenths 9/10 9/10 sembilan persepuluh

ninety nine one hundredth 99/100 99/100 sembilan puluh sembilan perseratus

one 1 1 satu

one and a half 1 1/2 1 1/2 satu setengah

one and three fourths 1 3/4 1 3/4 satu tiga perempat

two 2 2 dua

three 3 3 tiga

three point five 3.5 3,5 tiga koma lima

four 4 4 empat

four point two 4.2 4,2 empat koma dua

five 5 5 lima

six 6 6 enam

seven 7 7 tujuh

eight 8 8 delapan

nine 9 9 sembilan

ten 10 10 sepuluh

eleven 11 11 sebelas

twelve 12 12 dua belas

one dozen 12 12 selusin

thirteen 13 13 tiga belas

fourteen 14 14 empat belas

fifteen 15 15 lima belas

sixteen 16 16 enam belas

seventeen 17 17 tujuh belas

eighteen 18 18 delapan belas

nineteen 19 19 sembilan belas

twenty 20 20 dua puluh

a score 20 20 sekodi

twenty one 21 21 dua puluh satu

twenty two 22 22 dua puluh dua

twenty three 23 23 dua puluh tiga

twenty four 24 24 dua puluh empat

twenty five 25 25 dua puluh lima

twenty six 26 26 dua puluh enam

twenty seven 27 27 dua puluh tujuh

twenty eight 28 28 dua puluh delapan

twenty nine 29 29 dua puluh sembilan

thirty 30 30 tiga puluh

thirty one 31 31 tiga puluh satu

forty 40 40 empat puluh

forty two 42 42 empat puluh dua

fifty 50 50 lima puluh

fifty three 53 53 lima puluh tiga

sixty 60 60 enam puluh

sixty four 64 64 enam puluh empat

seventy 70 70 tujuh puluh

seventy five 75 75 tujuh puluh lima

eighty 80 80 delapan puluh

eighty six 86 86 delapan puluh enam

ninety 90 90 sembilan puluh

ninety nine 99 99 sembilan puluh sembilan

one hundred 100 100 seratus

one hundred three 103 103 seratus tiga

one hundred ten 110 110 seratus sepuluh

one hundred twenty three 123 123 seratus duapuluh tiga

two hundred thirty four 234 234 dua ratus tiga puluh empat

one thousand 1,000 1.000 seribu

one thousand one 1,001 1.001 seribu satu

one thousand one hundred 1,100 1.100 seribu seratus

two thousand 2,000 2.000 dua ribu

two thousand one 2,001 2.001 dua ribu satu

two thousand two 2,002 2.002 dua ribu dua

five thousand 5,000 5.000 lima ribu

ten thousand 10,000 10.000 sepuluh ribu

one hundred thousand 100,000 100.000 seratus ribu

one million 1,000,000 1.000.000 satu juta

one billion 1,000,000,000 satu milyar

Years Tahun

nineteen forty five 1945 1945 sembilan belas empat puluh lima

nineteen ninety 1990 1990 sembilan belas sembilan puluh

nineteen ninety eight 1998 1998 sembilan belas sembilan puluh delapan

nineteen ninety nine 1999 1999 sembilan belas sembilan puluh sembilan

two thousand 2000 2000 dua ribu

two thousand six 2006 2006 dua ribu enam

Ordinal Numbers Bilangan Tingkat

first 1st ke-1 pertama

second 2nd ke-2 kedua

third 3rd ke-3 ketiga

fourth 4th ke-4 keempat

fifth 5th ke-5 kelima

sixth 6th ke-6 keenam

seventh 7th ke-7 ketujuh

eighth 8th ke-8 kedelapan

ninth 9th ke-9 kesembilan

tenth 10th ke-10 kesepuluh

twentieth 20th ke-20 kedua puluh

forty third 43rd ke-43 keempat puluh tiga

one hundredth 100th ke-100 keseratus

nineteenth century 19th century abad ke-19 abad kesembilan belas

Other Lain-Lain

ten percent 10% 10% sepuluh persen

one hundred percent 100% 100% seratus persen

equals = = sama dengan

times x x kali

divided by ÷ : bagi

greater than > > lebih besar daripada

less than < < lebih kecil daripada

English Indonesian

Numeric Prefixes Awalan Nomor

uni- singular se-

duo-; bi- double dwi- ; bi-

tri- triple tri-

Multiples Kelipatan

twofold, double = dua kali lipat

threefold, triple = tiga kali lipat

fourfold, quadruple = empat kali lipat

fivefold = lima kali lipat

ninefold = sembilan kali lipat

four times = empat kali

five times = lima kali

six times = enam kali

Misc. Lain-lain

to be two, to be group of two, duet = berdua, duet

to be three, to be group of three, trio = bertiga, trio

to be four, group of four, quartet = berempat, kwartet

to be five, group of five = berlima

to be six, group of six = berenam

divide into four parts = membagi empat bagian

divide into five parts = membagi lima bagian

all four; four at a time = keempat-empatnya

all five; five at a time = kelima-limanya

both; two at a time = kedua-duanya

not equal to = tidak sama dengan

two times = dua kali

three times = tiga kali

hundreds = beratus-ratus

thousands = beribu-ribu

millions = jutaan

add up, calculate, count, tally = hitung, menghitung

approximately, rounded number = angka bulat, dibulatkan

billionaire = milyarwan

both = keduanya

calculated, counted = dihitung

to calculate, count = menghitung

a calculation, reckoning, tally = rekening

consecutive = berurutan

successive = berturut - turut

counting, numbering = pembilangan

counting = penghitungan

counting = perhitungan

count, sum, tally (a) = hitungan

count, to = berhitung

decimal = persepuluhan

decimal = desimal

denominator = penyebut

denominator, divisor = pembagi; penyebut

divisor = pembagi

dozens, dozen, by the = berlosin-losin (berlusis-lusin)

each, every = setiap

equation mark = persamaan

every time = setiap waktu

exponent = eksponen

hundreds = ratusan

lump sum = jumlah bulat

millionaire = jutawan

minus sign = tanda kurang

multiple = kelipatan

multiple times, many times = berlipat-lipat

multiple, multiplying = penggandaan

multiplication = perlipatan

multiplication = perkalian

multiplication = multiplikasi

multiplication sign = tanda kali

multiplication table = tabel perkalian

multiplication tables = daftar perkalian

multiplication, increase = perbanyakan

multiply = memperbanyak

multiply = mengalikan

number = nomor, nomer (slang)

number, amount = cacah

number, to - numbering, to be = berjumlah

numeral, number, digit, figure = angka

numerator = pembilang

percent = persen or prosen

percentage = persentase or prosentase

plus sign = tanda tambah

quotient = hasil bagi

rate = nilai

ratio = rasio

ratio, proportion, comparison = perbandingan

repeatedly, again and again, frequently = berulang kali

repeatedly, again & again, frequently = berulang-ulang

several times = beberapa kali

several, some, few = beberapa

subtract from, decrease = mengurangkan

subtract from, decrease = mengurangi

in succession = beriring-iringan

successive = beriring

successive, consecutive = berturut-turut

calculation, count, computation = perhitungan

number, amount, enumeration = bilangan

sum, total, amount, quantity = jumlah

exponential power increase = memangkatkan

proportion = nilai

exchange rate = nilai tukar


by TruAlfa &




period; full stop . tanda titik

comma , tanda koma

semicolon ; tanda titik koma

colon : tanda titik dua

apostrophe ' tanda penyingkat; apostrof

dash; hyphen - tanda hubung; tanda penyambung

underline mark _ tanda garis bawah

ellipsis ... tanda elipsis

slash / tanda garis miring; setrip

backslash \ tanda garis miring balik

tilde ~ tilde

asterisk * nanjam; tanda bintang

left arrow < tanda panah sebelah kiri

right arrow > tanda panah sebelah kanan

parenthesis ( ) tanda kurung

square brackets [ ] tanda kurung siku

brackets (non-square) { } tanda kurung kurawal

question mark ? tanda tanya

exclamation point ! tanda seru

percent; percentage % persen; persentase

ampersand; and & dan

double quotation marks " " tanda petik; tanda kutip

single quotation marks ' ' tanda petik tunggal

equal sign = sama dengan

approximately  kira-kira

not equal to  tidak sama dengan

plus sign; positive + positif; tambah

minus sign; negative - negatif; kurang; minus

less than < lebih kecil daripada

greater than > lebih besar daripada

less than or equal to  lebih kecil daripada atau sama dengan

greater than or equal to  lebih besar daripada atau sama dengan

square root  akar kuadrat

total; sum of  jumlah; sigma

times; multiplied by x tanda kali

divided by  tanda bagi

Pembentukan Kata-kata Bahasa Indonesia

Ada banyak ragam pembentukan kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Sebagian besar kata dibentuk dengan cara menggabungkan beberapa komponen yang berbeda. Untuk memahami cara pembentukan kata-kata tersebut kita sebaiknya mengetahui lebih dahulu beberapa konsep dasar dan istilah seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah ini. Untuk mempersingkat dan memperjelas pembahasannya, kami menggunakan kata-kata yang tidak bersifat gramatikal atau teknis untuk menjelaskan kata-kata tersebut sebanyak mungkin. Kami tidak membahas tentang infiks (sisipan yang jarang digunakan), reduplikasi dan kata-kata majemuk yang berafiks. 

Definisi Istilah

kata dasar (akar kata) = kata yang paling sederhana yang belum memiliki imbuhan, juga dapat dikelompokkan sebagai bentuk asal (tunggal) dan bentuk dasar (kompleks), tetapi perbedaan kedua bentuk ini tidak dibahas di sini.

afiks (imbuhan) = satuan terikat (seperangkat huruf tertentu) yang apabila ditambahkan pada kata dasar akan mengubah makna dan membentuk kata baru. Afiks tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dan harus melekat pada satuan lain seperti kata dasar. Istilah afiks termasuk prefiks, sufiks dan konfiks.

prefiks (awalan) = afiks (imbuhan) yang melekat di depan kata dasar untuk membentuk kata baru dengan arti yang berbeda.

sufiks (akhiran) = afiks (imbuhan) yang melekat di belakang kata dasar untuk membentuk kata baru dengan arti yang berbeda.

konfiks (sirkumfiks / simulfiks) = secara simultan (bersamaan), satu afiks melekat di depan kata dasar dan satu afiks melekat di belakang kata dasar yang bersama-sama mendukung satu fungsi.

kata turunan (kata jadian) = kata baru yang diturunkan dari kata dasar yang mendapat imbuhan.

keluarga kata dasar = kelompok kata turunan yang semuanya berasal dari satu kata dasar dan memiliki afiks yang berbeda.

Afiks Bahasa Indonesia yang Umum

prefiks: ber-, di-, ke-, me-, meng-, mem-, meny-, pe-, pem-, peng-, peny-, per-, se-, ter-

sufiks: -an, -kan, -i, -pun, -lah, -kah, -nya

konfiks: ke - an, ber - an, pe - an, peng - an, peny - an, pem - an, per - an, se - nya

Penggunaan Afiks

Mempelajari proses pembentukan kata-kata dan metode pembubuhan afiks merupakan kunci untuk memahami makna kata-kata turunan dan belajar membaca teks Bahasa Indonesia. Sebagian besar kata yang terdapat dalam surat kabar dan majalah Indonesia berafiks. Jika seseorang mengerti makna kata dasar, ia dapat mengerti makna sebagian besar kata yang berasal (diturunkan) dari kata dasar itu dengan menggunakan kaidah umum untuk masing-masing jenis afiks.

Jika kita dapat menerima sedikit kekeliruan dalam penggunaan afiks, kita dapat menyederhanakan pembahasan tentang afiks (imbuhan). Dalam mengklasifikasikan jenis kata (nomina, verba, adjektiva, dan lain-lain) kami menggunakan kaidah pengklasifikasian kata menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Balai Pustaka, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Edisi Kedua - 1991) yang disusun dan diterbitkan oleh Pemerintah Indonesia. Penjelasan di bawah adalah untuk menguraikan hasil penambahan afiks (imbuhan) kepada kata dasar, bukan untuk menjelaskan bilamana afiks digunakan. Dalam kamus ini tidak diuraikan tentang asal kata dasar (etimologi). Perlu diperhatikan bahwa penjelasan di bawah ini lebih berhubungan dengan perbuatan (aksi) dalam suatu kalimat - siapa yang melakukan aksi itu, hasil perbuatan, arah perbuatan atau tindakan dan apakah tindakan itu merupakan fokus utama dalam kalimat atau bukan.

Frekuensi Penggunaan Afiks

Dalam kamus ini terdapat 38.308 entri (tidak termasuk singkatan, akronim dan entri kata majemuk) dimana 22.022 berafiks dan 16.286 tidak berafiks. Menurut persentase, 57% berafiks dan 43% tidak. Dengan kata lain, untuk tiap 9 entri dalam kamus ini, 5 kata berafiks dan 4 kata lainnya tidak.

Pada tahun 1998, secara tidak formal, kami menganalisis 10.000 kata Bahasa Indonesia dari terbitan yang umum di Indonesia. Dari 10.000 kata tersebut, terdapat 2.887 atau kira-kira 29% kata berafiks dan 7.113 atau 71% tidak. Dengan kata lain, untuk tiap 100 kata di surat kabar atau majalah, Anda mungkin dapat menemukan 29 kata yang berafiks dan 71 kata tidak berafiks. Tingkat penggunaan masing-masing afiks diuraikan di bawah ini.

Aplikasi Afiks 

ber- : menambah prefiks ini membentuk verba (kata kerja) yang sering kali mengandung arti (makna) mempunyai atau memiliki sesuatu. Juga dapat menunjukkan keadaan atau kondisi atribut tertentu. Penggunaan prefiks ini lebih aktif berarti mempergunakan atau mengerjakan sesuatu. Fungsi utama prefiks "ber-" adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa subyek kalimat merupakan orang atau sesuatu yang mengalami perbuatan dalam kalimat itu. Banyak verba dengan afiks "ber-" mempunyai kata yang sama dengan bentuk adjektiva dalam Bahasa Inggris. Sekitar satu dari tiap 44 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki prefiks ini. 

me-, meng-, menge-, meny, mem-: menambah salah satu dari prefiks ini membentuk verba yang sering kali menunjukkan tindakan aktif di mana fokus utama dalam kalimat adalah pelaku, bukan tindakan atau obyek tindakan itu. Jenis prefiks ini sering kali mempunyai arti mengerjakan, menghasilkan, melakukan atau menjadi sesuatu. Prefiks ini yang paling umum digunakan dan sekitar satu dari tiap 13 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki salah satu dari prefiks ini.

di- : Prefiks ini mempunyai pertalian yang sangat erat dengan prefiks "me-." Prefiks "me-" menunjukkan tindakan aktif sedangkan prefiks "di-" menunjukkan tindakan pasif, di mana tindakan atau obyek tindakan adalah fokus utama dalam kalimat itu, dan bukan pelaku. Sekitar satu dari tiap 40 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki prefiks ini. 

pe- : Prefiks ini membentuk nomina yang menunjukkan orang atau agen yang melakukan perbuatan dalam kalimat. Kata dengan prefiks ini juga bisa memiliki makna alat yang dipakai untuk melakukan perbuatan yang tersebut pada kata dasarnya. Apabila kata dasarnya berupa kata sifat, maka kata yang dibentuk dengan prefiks ini memiliki sifat atau karakteristik kata dasarnya. Sekitar satu dari tiap 110 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki prefiks ini. 

ter- : Sekitar satu dari tiap 54 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki prefiks ini. Penambahan afiks ini menimbulkan dua kemungkinan.

(1) Jika menambahkan ke kata dasar adjektif, biasanya menghasilkan adjektif yang menyatakan tingkat atau kondisi paling tinggi (ekstrim) atau superlatif. (misalnya: paling besar, paling tinggi, paling baru, paling murah)

(2) Jika menambahkan ke kata dasar yang bukan adjektif, umumnya menghasilkan verba yang menyatakan aspek perfektif, yaitu suatu perbuatan yang telah selesai dikerjakan. Afiks ini juga bisa menunjukkan perbuatan spontanitas, yaitu suatu perbuatan yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba atau tidak disengaja (misalnya aksi oleh pelaku yang tidak disebutkan, pelaku tidak mendapat perhatian atau tindakan natural). Fokus dalam kalimat adalah kondisi resultan tindakan itu dan tidak memfokuskan pada pelaku perbuatan atau bagaimana kondisi resultan itu tercapai.

se-: menambah prefiks ini dapat menghasilkan beberapa jenis kata. Prefiks ini sering dianggap sebagai pengganti "satu" dalam situasi tertentu. Sekitar satu dari tiap 42 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki prefiks ini. Penggunaan paling umum dari prefiks ini adalah sebagai berikut:

1. untuk menyatakan satu benda, satuan atau kesatuan (seperti "a" atau "the" dalam Bahasa Inggris)

2. untuk menyatakan seluruh atau segenap

3. untuk menyatakan keseragaman, kesamaan atau kemiripan

4. untuk menyatakan tindakan dalam waktu yang sama atau menyatakan sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan waktu 

-an : menambah sufiks ini biasanya menghasilkan kata benda yang menunjukkan hasil suatu perbuatan. Sufiks ini pun dapat menunjukkan tempat, alat, instrumen, pesawat, dan sebagainya. Sekitar satu dari tiap 34 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki sufiks ini. 

-i : menambah sufiks ini akan menghasilkan verba yang menunjukkan perulangan, pemberian sesuatu atau menyebabkan sesuatu. Sufiks ini sering digunakan untuk memindahkan perbuatan kepada suatu tempat atau obyek tak langsung dalam kalimat yang mana tetap dan tidak mendapat pengaruh dari perbuatan tersebut . Sufiks ini pun menunjukkan di mana dan kepada siapa tindakan itu ditujukan. Sekitar satu dari tiap 70 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki sufiks ini. 

-kan: menambah sufiks ini akan menghasilkan kata kerja yang menunjukkan penyebab, proses pembuatan atau timbulnya suatu kejadian. Fungsi utamanya yaitu untuk memindahkan perbuatan verba ke bagian lain dalam kalimat. Sekitar satu dari tiap 20 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki sufiks ini. 

-kah : menambah sufiks ini menunjukkan bahwa sebuah ucapan merupakan pertanyaan dan sufiks ini ditambahkan kepada kata yang merupakan fokus pertanyaan dalam kalimat. Sufiks ini jarang digunakan. 

-lah : sufiks ini memiliki penggunaan yang berbeda dan membingungkan, tetapi secara singkat dapat dikatakan bahwa sufiks ini sering digunakan untuk memperhalus perintah, untuk menunjukkan kesopanan atau menekankan ekspresi. Hanya sekitar satu dari tiap 400 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki sufiks ini. 

ke-an : Konfiks ini yang paling umum digunakan dan sekitar satu dari tiap 65 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki konfiks ini. Konfiks ini adalah untuk:

1. membentuk nomina yang menyatakan hasil perbuatan atau keadaan dalam pengertian umum yang menyatakan hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan kata dasar 

2. membentuk nomina yang menunjuk kepada tempat atau asal

3. membentuk adjektif yang menyatakan keadaan berlebihan

4. membentuk verba yang menyatakan kejadian yang kebetulan 

pe-an, peng-an, peny-an, pem-an : penggunaan salah satu dari keempat konfiks ini biasanya menghasilkan suatu nomina yang menunjukkan proses berlangsungnya perbuatan yang ditunjuk oleh verba dalam kalimat. Sekitar satu dari tiap 75 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki konfiks ini. 

per-an : menambah konfiks ini akan menghasilkan sebuah nomina yang menunjukkan hasil suatu perbuatan (bukan prosesnya) dan dapat juga menunjukkan tempat. Artinya sering menunjuk kepada suatu keadaan yang ditunjuk oleh kata dasar atau hasil perbuatan verba dalam kalimat. Keadaan ini mirip dengan yang diperoleh dengan menggunakan konfiks "ke-an", tetapi biasanya kurang umum dan lebih konkrit atau spesifik. Sekitar satu dari tiap 108 kata yang tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki konfiks ini. 

se - nya : Konfiks ini seringkali muncul bersama-sama dengan kata dasar tunggal atau kata dasar ulangan untuk membentuk adverbia yang menunjukkan suatu keadaan tertinggi yang dapat dicapai oleh perbuatan kata kerja (misalnya: setinggi-tingginya = setinggi mungkin).

-nya : Ada penggunaan "-nya" sebagai sufiks murni yang mengubah arti kata dasarnya, tetapi hal ini merupakan konsep yang agak rumit dan kurang umum dan tidak dibahas di sini. contoh: biasanya = usually; rupanya = apparently 

-nya, -ku, -mu: satuan-satuan ini bukan merupakan afiks murni dan semuanya tidak dimasukkan sebagai entri dalam kamus ini. Pada umumnya satuan-satuan ini dianggap sebagai kata ganti yang menyatakan kepemilikan yang digabungkan dengan kata dasar yang mana tidak mengubah arti kata dasar. Misalnya, kata "bukuku" = buku saya, "bukumu" = buku Anda, "bukunya" = buku dia atau buku mereka. Selain sebagai kata ganti yang menyatakan kepemilikan, satuan "-nya" pun dapat memiliki fungsi untuk menunjukkan sesuatu. Misalnya, "bukunya" berarti "buku itu", bila "-nya" berfungsi sebagai penunjuk. 

Penggunaan "-nya" baik sebagai kata ganti maupun penunjuk (bukan sebagai sufiks murni) adalah sangat umum dan sekitar satu dari tiap 14 kata tertulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia memiliki satuan ini. Penggunaan "-ku" dan "-mu" bervariasi sesuai dengan jenis tulisan. Dua jenis kata ganti ini sangat umum digunakan dalam komik, cerpen dan tulisan tidak resmi lainnya, dan jarang digunakan dalam tulisan yang lebih formal seperti surat kabar dan majalah berita

Capitalization Rules for English & Indonesian

by TruAlfa &

English Examples Capitalization Rules the Same for Both Languages Indonesian Examples (Contoh)

Life is good. Aren't words fun? Initial letter of first word in sentence Aku cinta rupiah.

God, Islam, Buddha, Jehovah Initial letter of a religion, religious figure and religious objects Tuhan, Al Quran, Islam, Yang Maha Esa; Hindu

Sir Henry, Lord Nelson; Your Highness Initial letter of title of respect when used with name Haji Abdul Kadir, Pangeran Diponegoro, Iman Hanafi

President Clinton, Speaker of the Senate Initial letter of title when followed by name of person President Soekarno, Gubernor Iman Utomo

Joe, Bill, Sue, Nancy, IndoDic, TruAlfa Initial letters of proper names Gramedia, Insanuddin, Indodic, 

London, Germany, Spanish, Negro, Hispanic Initial letters of names of places, languages, ethnic groups Inggris, bahasa Indonesia, Batak, suku Jawa

Monday, July, Halloween, Labor Day Initial letter of days of week, months, holidays & historical events Senin, Juli, Idul Fitri, Hari Lebaran, Hari raya

Mount Vesuvius, Niagara Falls, Ayers Rock Initial letters of geographic places when used with name itself Gunung Merapi, Selat Malaka, Danau Toba

Dr., Mr., Sr. Initial letters of titles abbreviated Dept. Pendidikan; Dr., Ir.,Prof.

Mother Teresa Initial letters of personal pronouns when used in respectful way Pak Beng, Ibu/Bu, Paman, Saudara

Dear Sir:, Sincerely Yours; Best Regards; Salutations and closings of letters Saudara


English Only Rules Indonesian Only Rules

Personal pronoun "I" always capitalized 1st letter of 1st word in direct quote in quotation marks

Personal pronoun "Anda" always capitalized

English Examples- Not Capitalized Rules - When to Not Capitalize Indonesian Examples Not Capitalized

to, from, for, the, a, an, the 1. certain short words in titles that aren't in first position di, ke, dan, yang, untuk

french fries, polish sausage 2. names aren't capitalized when used in descriptive names gula jawa, pisang ambon, bawang bombai

3. Capital letter not used for names that have prefixes added mengindonesiakan

English Language Terminology

by TruAlfa &

English language terms are defined in the first section below. The next section has definitions for English modifiers, verbs, other types and affixation. It is very fortunate that the two languages are so similar. Even though the definitions below are for English, nearly all of the terms have similar concepts in bahasa Indonesia as well. A major difference is that modifiers come after the words modified in Indonesian while they are placed before the nouns in English. Another difference is that bahasa Indonesia doesn't have Articles (no "a, an or the").

Antecedent = a word, phrase or clause that is replaced by a pronoun or other substitute in the same sentence or in another sentence.

example: In "Sam lost his hat and can't find it", "Sam" is the antecedent of "he" and "hat" is the antecedent of "it."

Articulation = facility with words; using language and speech easily and fluently.

Concept = a general notion or idea; a conception; an object of thought. An idea of something formed by mentally combining all its characteristics. 

Dialect = a certain form or variation of a language retained by special groups which varies from the general standard for that language.

Grammar = the prescribed forms in language. The rules of language.

Inflection = modulation of the voice; change in pitch or tone of voice.

Intonation = the pattern or melody of pitch changes in speech, especially the pitch pattern of a sentence which distinguishes kinds of sentences. 

Jargon = a special language pattern used by a particular group of people

Language = Any system of formalized words, symbols, signs, sounds, gestures or the like used as a means of communicating thought, mental concepts, emotion, etc.

Lingua franca = language that is widely used as a common means of communication among speakers of other languages.

Linguistics = the science and study of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.

Meaning = what is intended to be expressed or indicated in a communication. The mental image or concept that a sender tries to transfer to a receiver in communication.

Morpheme = any of the minimal grammatical units of a language that cannot be divided into smaller independent grammatical parts.

Morphology = the patterns of word formation in a particular language, including inflection, derivation, and composition.

Nomenclature = terminology; the system of terms peculiar to a particular science, art or subject.

Objective (objective case) = a case specialized for the use of a word as the object of a transitive verb or of a preposition.

Phonetics = the science and study of speech sounds and their production, transmission and reception.

Phonology = the study of the rules governing pronunciation and speech sounds in a language.

Possessive = pertaining to a case that indicates possession, ownership, origin, etc.

Pronunciation = the act or result of producing the sounds of speech, including articulation, stress and intonation. The conventional patterns of speech sounds for a language.

Semantics = the study of meanings of words, signs, sentences, etc.

Sense = a particular meaning of a word or phrase. A particular mental image or concept.

Stress = special effort in speech that creates emphasis by increasing relative loudness of a syllable or word.

Subjective (subjective case) = pertaining to the subject of a sentence.

Syllable = an uninterrupted segment of speech with a single sound resonance.

Syntactic = pertaining to syntax; regarding the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in language.

Syntax = the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in language. The study of the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words.

Term = a word or group of words that designates something, especially in a particular field.

Terminology = nomenclature; the system of terms peculiar to a particular field.

Vernacular = the natural informal speech patterns used by persons indigenous to a certain area.

Word = the unit of language that functions as the principal carrier of meaning. Words are usually separated by spaces in writing.

Subject = a syntactic unit that functions as one of the two main constituents of a simple sentence, the other being the predicate. A subject consists of a noun, noun phrase or noun substitute which often refers to the actor in the sentence or to the state of being expressed by the predicate.

Note: a sentence has two parts, the topic of the sentence is the subject and what is said about the subject is the predicate. The subject usually comes first and identifies the agent of the action and tells us who or what is doing something. The most frequent forms of the subject are nouns, pronouns and proper nouns (all called nominals). The predicate always has a verb which often has modifiers such as adverbs.

Predicate = a syntactic unit that functions as one of the two main constituents of a simple sentence, the other being the subject. A predicate consists of a verb and all the words governed by the verb or modifying it, the whole often expressing the action performed by the subject or the state of being of the subject.


A modifier is a word, phrase or sentence element that limits or qualifies the sense of another word, phrase or element. Modifiers describe the distinctive features of things. They modify the meaning of other words by adding description or by making the meaning more precise. Although there are at least five different word types that can act as modifiers, only adjectives and adverbs are used specifically for that purpose and these two will be discussed first. The discussion of when nouns, pronouns and verbs can be used as modifiers in special situations will follow since these word types are not normally used this way. Adjectives and adverbs are full-time modifiers while nouns, pronouns & verbs are "occasional" modifiers.

Adjective Modifiers

Adjective: an adjective modifies the meaning of a noun or pronoun by providing information to give it a more specific meaning. Adjectives answer the questions "Which, What Kind Of and How Many or How much"? Adjectives are descriptive words that usually precede the words they describe in English. When two or more adjectives are used together before a noun, they are usually arranged in a recognizable order (not separated by commas). An article will always be first, a noun used as an adjective will always come last, directly before the noun or pronoun being modified. 

example: I bought a small old red hand-blown French wine bottle.

Typical Order for Adjectives Example

1. Article or pronoun used as an adjective a

2. Size small

3. Age old

4. Color red

5. Participle hand-blown

6. Proper adjective French

7. Noun used as an adjective wine

noun that is being modified bottle

Articles: The most commonly used adjectives are the articles, a, an, and the. The is called the "definite article" because it calls attention to a specific person, place, or thing. A and an are known as "indefinite articles" because they refer to things without being specific as to which particular thing. Use a before words beginning with a consonant sound (a cat, a dog) and use an before words beginning with a vowel sound (an artist, an elephant). It is the pronounced sound, not the letter, which determines whether a or an should be used (a uniform, an L-shaped room, an 18th century creation).

Compound Word Adjectives: hyphenated compound words can also function as adjectives that often answer the question "what kind of?". e.g. A many-sided issue. A life-and-death struggle. Yosemite-like mountains.

Adverb Modifiers

Adverb = an adverb modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb by providing information to give it a more specific meaning. Adverbs are frequently formed from adjectives by adding the suffix "-ly" to the adjective, but beware that many adjectives also end in "-ly". Adverbs answer the questions "How, When or Where?", but when modifying an adjective or another adverb they answer only one question "To what extent?", (such an adverb is often called an "intensifier"). Most adverbs can form the comparative and superlative degrees by using "more or most" in front of the adverb.

Other Modifiers - Nouns, Pronouns and Verbs

Verbs that can be used as adjectives usually have the "-ing" or "-ed" suffix attached and are called participles. examples: a burning desire; a devoted friend

Nouns or pronouns can sometimes function as adjectives when they modify other nouns or pronouns. 

examples: a brick house, a stone fence

Some nouns can function as adverbs that answer the question "Where? or When?" e.g. home, yesterday, today, tomorrow, mornings, afternoons, evenings, nights, week, month and year.


Verb = a word that functions as the main element of predicates and that typically expresses action, a state of being or a relation between things. A verb may be inflected for tense, voice or mood and to show agreement with its subject or object.

Tense = a category of verbal inflection that serves chiefly to specify the time of the action for a verb or a state expressed by the verb. Verbs that are not inflected according to the normal pattern are referred to as Irregular Verbs and are often listed in tables for quick reference. 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs = All verbs can be described as either transitive or intransitive, depending on whether they transfer action to another word in the sentence. A verb is transitive if it directs action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. A verb is intransitive if it does not direct action toward someone or something. The word to which a transitive verb directs its action is called the object of the verb. Intransitive verbs never have objects.

Note: You can determine whether a verb has an object and is thus transitive by asking the question "Who?" or "What?" with regard to the verb. If you can identify something as "who or what", then that something is an object of the verb and the form is transitive. If you cannot identify a "who or what", then the form is intransitive.

Verbs - English vs. Indonesian - Similarities and Differences

1. Passive Verbs - Both English and bahasa Indonesia have a concept called "passive voice". Only transitive verbs can be passive. When a direct object is in the sentence the structure of the sentence determines whether a passive verb is used or whether the "normal" or "active" verb is to be used. Bahasa Indonesia uses the "di-" prefix exclusively as the passive prefix identifier, while English uses the "-ed" suffix. Unfortunately, this "ed" suffix has other uses which causes confusion. Passive sentence structures seem to be used more frequently in Indonesian than in English.

2. Tenses - tenses are verbal time markers in English. Tenses are not used in bahasa Indonesia. English tenses are formed in the normal or "regular" way by adding the suffixes "-ed" and "-ing", but not all verbs follow the rule. Irregular verb tenses need to be memorized or become accustomed to and tables of common irregular verb formations are widely available (including TruAlfa Dictionary and on

3. English changes the form of verb for 3rd person singular usage by adding an "s" or a form of "s" - which unfortunately overlaps with plural nouns and creates confusion because the words are spelled the same.

4. Indo "ber-" prefix creates Indonesian words that some scholars classify as adjectives while others refer to them as verbs. They often translate into English as adjectives since they express a state of being or having a certain characteristic.

Other Word Types

Noun = a word that is used to identify anything that can be named. Nouns often refer to persons, places, things, states, or qualities. Proper nouns are always capitalized and refer to the name of a person, place or thing. Common nouns are all nouns other than proper nouns. The possessive case of nouns is formed by adding an apostrophe and an "s" to words which do not end in an s or a z sound.

Note: a noun can function as a modifier of another noun (i.e., it can function as an adjective).

Pronoun = a word of general reference that is used as a replacement or substitute for a noun or noun phrase. e.g., "he" is a pronoun for Bill or Joe, etc. Certain pronouns can also function as adjectives. 

Interjection = a word that expresses strong emotion and which is able to function by it¬self, independent of other words in a sentence.

Conjunction = a word that serves as a connector between words, phrases or clauses in a sentence.

Preposition = a word that is used before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase that functions as a modifier of verbs, nouns, or adjectives. A preposition typically expresses a time or space relationship between the noun or pronoun that appears with it and another word or phrase in the sentence.

Note: prepositions and conjunctions function in sentences as connectors. Prepositions express relationships between words or ideas, whereas conjunctions join words, groups of words and entire sentences. Many words can be classified as both prepositions and conjunctions.


root word = words that are able to have affixes attached are called "root words". Root words can be further classified as base roots, multiple-word roots, previously-affixed roots and roots with other combining forms. 

affix = a standard set of letters attached to a root word that creates a new word. An affix is not able to be used alone in language but must be attached to another unit such as a root word. The word affix is a general term for a prefix, a suffix or a confix.

prefix = an affix attached to the front of a root word that creates a new word.

suffix = an affix attached at the end of a root word that creates a new word.

infix = an affix that is inserted within a root word and which creates a new word. An infix is usually placed into the root word after the first syllable of the root word. Infixes are rarely used in English and are not productive.

derived word = the new word that is formed when an affix is attached to a root word.

derivation = the process of adding affixes to a base (root word) to produce new words that are able to undergo further inflection.

root word family = a related group of words consisting of a root word and all derived words that are formed from that root word by the addition of various affixes and combining forms.

combining form = a linguistic unit that has a function similar to an affix but which cannot be technically classified as an affix.

inflection = the process or device of adding affixes to a base (root word) to give it a different syntactic function without changing its word type. Inflection can also be described as the change in the shape of a word, generally by affixation, by means of which a change of meaning or relationship to some other word or group of words is indicated. (contrast with "derivation").

1,200 Similar Words - English & Indonesian

by TruAlfa &

The 1,200 Indonesian words listed below are not only spelled almost the 

same as English versions but they have the same general meanings.

Studying this list is a great vocabulary-building exercise.


Word English Translation

abakus n. = abacus; an ancient counting device

abses n. = abscess; a medical condition with pus in a body cavity

abstrak adj. = abstract; not real or concrete

adaptabel adj. = adaptable; able to adapt or adjust

adaptif adj. = adaptive; able to easily adapt or adjust to new conditions

adaptor n. = adapter; a person or thing that adapts, conforms or adjusts

adekuat adj. = adequate; sufficient; ample

adendum n. = addendum; appendage

adenoid n. = adenoids; body tissue at the rear of the nasal passage

adhesif adj. = adhesive; sticky; tending to adhere

adiktif adj. = addictive; tending to become habit-forming

adisional adj. = additional; extra; supplemental

aditif n. = additive; an added substance

adjektif n. = adjective; a type of word that describes or modifies nouns

adolesens n. = adolescence; the time of youth just prior to adulthood

adrenalin n. = adrenalin; a hormone that stimulates body functions

advis n. = advice; counsel

advokat n. = advocate; attorney; lawyer

aerobatik adj. = aerobatic; regarding skilled flying or aerial maneuvers

aerobik adj. = aerobic; regarding a type of physical exercise with lively music

aerodinamik adj. = aerodynamic; streamlined

afiks n. = affix; a prefix, suffix or confix

afirmatif adj. = affirmative; confirming

agnostik n. = agnostic; a person who doubts the existence of God

agresif adj. = aggressive; assertive

agresor n. = aggressor; a person who is aggressive or assertive

agribisnis n. = agribusiness; agricultural business

agrikultur n. = agriculture; cultivation of food products

agroindustri n. = agricultural industry

agronomi n. = agriculture; agronomy

Agustus n. = August

akademi n. = academy; a learning institution for specialized training

akademik adj. = academic; regarding learning

akrobat n. = acrobat; a performer of skilled gymnastic feats

akronim n. = acronym; a word formed from selected letters of two or more words

aksen n. = accent; stress; emphasis

aksentuasi n. = accentuation; stress; emphasis

akseptabel adj. = acceptable

aksesibil adj. = accessible; able to be accessed or used

aksesori n. = accessory; an additional or extra thing

aktif adj. = active; busy; involved

aktivis n. = activist; a person who is active in promoting his beliefs

aktivisme n. = activism; the actions of promoting one's beliefs

aktor n. = actor; a person who acts

aktual adj. = actual; real; true; veritable

akuifer n. = aquifer; a porous underground area that contains water

akumulatif adj. = accumulative; cumulative; tending to gather or accumulate

akuntabel adj. = accountable; being subject to accountability

akuntan n. = accountant

akuntansi n. = accountancy; financial bookkeeping

akunting n. = accounting; the maintenance of business and financial records

akupunktur n. = acupuncture

akupunkturis n. = acupuncturist; a doctor or specialist in acupuncture

akurat adj. = accurate; precise; correct

alegro adj. = allegro; quick; fast and lively

alergi n. = allergy; an adverse physical reaction to foods, pollen, etc.

alfa n. = alpha; the first letter of the Greek alphabet

alfabet n. = alphabet; a listing of all letters used in a language

alfanumerik adj. = alphanumeric; the letters of the alphabet and numeric digits

alkohol n. = alcohol; liquor; an intoxicating beverage

alkoholik adj. = alcoholic; a person addicted to drinking alcohol

almanak n. = almanac; calendar

alternatif n. = alternative; an other option

aluminium n. = aluminum; a lightweight metallic element with a silver color

amatir n. = amateur; a person who is not a skilled professional

ambisi n. = ambition; the desire to obtain something

ambulans n. = ambulance; a type of emergency vehicle

amendemen n. = amendment; an addition to a document

Amerika n. = America; USA

amnesti n. = amnesty; a pardon

amonia n. = ammonia; a type of colorless gas with a pungent odor

amplop n. = an envelope

anakronisme n. = anachronism; something out of date

analgesik n. = analgesic; pain killing substance or remedy

analog adj. = analogous; analogic; concerned with reasoning by comparison

anarki n. = anarchy; lack of rules or governmental control

anarkis n. = anarchist; a person who disregards rules or governmental control

anarkisme n. = anarchism; a condition of anarchy or chaos

anatomi n. = anatomy; the science and study of body structure

anekdot n. = anecdote; a short interesting story (often humorous)

anestetis n. = anesthetic; a pain-killing drug

animis n. = animist; a person who believes that some objects and creatures have spirits

animisme n. = animism; the belief that some objects and creatures have spirits

anomali n. = anomaly; irregularity; abnormality

anoreksia n. = anorexia; a severe eating disorder caused by excessive dieting

antagonis n. = antagonist; an opponent

antagonisme n. = antagonism; hostility; belligerence

antagonistik adj. = antagonistic; belligerent; hostile; exhibiting hostility

Antarktik n. = Antarctic; the region of the earth south of the Antarctic Circle

Antarktika n. = Antarctica; the continent at the South Pole

antena n. = antenna

antibiotik n. = antibiotic; a substance that destroys bacteria

antibodi n. = antibody; a type of protein that acts as an immunizing agent

antihistamin n. = antihistamine; a drug used to help prevent allergic reactions

antik adj. = antique; very old

antiseptik n. = antiseptic; a substance that kills bacteria

antisosial adj. = antisocial; not socially inclined

antiteroris adj. = antiterrorist; opposed to terrorism

antiterorisme n. = antiterrorism; opposition to terrorism

antitoksin n. = antitoxin; an antibody that counteracts a toxin

antraks n. = anthrax

aparatus n. = apparatus; instrument; mechanism

apartemen n. = apartment; a rental unit

apendiks n. = appendix; a body organ; a supplement to a book

apendisitis n. = appendicitis; a painful inflammation of the appendix

aplaus n. = applause; loud hand clapping of approval

apokalips n. = apocalypse; a revelation of total destruction

apologi n. = apology; a statement of regret for a prior action

apostrof n. = apostrophe; a type of punctuation mark

aprikot n. = apricot; a type of fruit similar to a small peach

argumen n. = argument; dispute; quarrel

aristokrasi n. = aristocracy; nobility

aristokrat n. = aristocrat; a person of noble blood or of a privileged class

aritmetika n. = arithmetic; the most basic branch of mathematics

arkade n. = arcade; a retail shopping area

arkais adj. = archaic; antiquated; very old

arkeologi n. = archaeology; the study of ancient peoples and objects

arogan adj. = arrogant; haughty; snobbish

aromatik adj. = aromatic; having an aroma

arsenik n. = arsenic; a type of poison

arteri n. = artery; a large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart

artifisial adj. = artificial; unnatural

artikel n. = article

artileri n. = artillery; large long-range guns

artis n. = artist; a person who creates art; an entertainer

artistik adj. = artistic; having the ability or aptitude to create art

aset n. = asset; valuable property

asetat n. = acetate; a salt of acetic acid

asetilena n. = acetylene; a type of gas used for high temperature cutting torches

aseton n. = acetone; a colorless flammable liquid used as a solvent

asfiksia n. = asphyxia; death due to lack of oxygen in breathing

asimetri n. = asymmetry; a lack of symmetry; disproportionality

asimetrik adj. = asymmetric; asymmetrical; lack of symmetry

asisten n. = assistant; a helper; an aide

asosial adj. = asocial; not concerned with social contacts

aspek n. = aspect; facet

aspiran n. = aspirant; applicant; a hopeful candidate

asterik n. = asterisk; a star-shaped symbol

astigmatisme n. = astigmatism; a medical condition that causes poor eyesight

astringen n. = astringent; a medical substance used to stop bleeding

astrologi n. = astrology; the study of objects in outer space

astronomi n. = astronomy; the science and study of objects in outer space

astronot n. = astronaut; a spaceman; a human space traveler

ateis n. = atheist; a person who does not believe in God

ateisme n. = atheism; disbelief in the existence of God

Atlantik n. = Atlantic

atlet n. = athlete; a competitor in physical sports

atletik adj. = athletic; regarding physical sports

atmosfer n. = atmosphere; the layer of air and gases that surrounds planet earth

atmosferik adj. = atmospheric; regarding the atmosphere

atraktif adj. = attractive; inviting; alluring; pleasing to the eye

atrofi n. = atrophy; attrition; a wasting away; gradual deterioration

Australi n. = Australia

autentik adj. = authentic; genuine

autisme n. = autism; a type of serious mental condition

autistik adj. = autistic; affected with autism

autobiografi n. = autobiography; a story of a person's life written by that person

autograf n. = autograph; a signature

autokrat n. = autocrat; an absolute ruler

automotif adj. = automotive; regarding automobiles

autopsi n. = autopsy; an examination of a corpse to determine the cause of death

avalans n. = avalanche; a rapid sliding down of a mass of snow

babun n. = baboon; a large type of monkey with a protruding face

bakteri n. = bacteria; a type of microorganism; a microbe

bakteriologi n. = bacteriology; the science and study of bacteria

balerina n. = ballerina; a female ballet dancer

balet n. = ballet; a theatrical dance performance

balistik adj. = ballistic; regarding the science of projectiles

balon n. = balloon; an inflated rubber bag

balsem n. = balsam; ointment; medicated salve

bambu n. = bamboo

bankerut adj. = bankrupt; insolvent

bankir n. = banker

barbarisme n. = barbarism; savagery

barbel n. = barbell; dumbbell; a weighted bar for weightlifting

barikade n. = barricade; an erected obstruction

bariton n. = baritone; a male singing voice between tenor and bass

barometrik adj. = barometric; regarding atmospheric pressure

basilika n. = basilica; a type of large church

batalion n. = battalion; a large military unit of soldiers

bauksit n. = bauxite; a mineral that contains aluminum-producing ore

bazar n. = bazaar; marketplace

belboi n. = bellhop; bell boy

benzedrin n. = Benzedrine; a trade name for a type of amphetamine stimulant

bibliografi n. = bibliography; a list of books by a certain author or a certain subject

bifokal n. = bifocal; optical glasses with focuses for near and distant viewing

bigami n. = bigamy; being married to more than one spouse at the same time

bigamis n. = bigamist; a person who has two or more spouses at the same time

bikameral adj. = bicameral; having two legislative bodies

bikarbonat n. = bicarbonate; hydrogen carbonate; a salt of carbonic acid

bilboard n. = billboard; a large outdoor advertising sign

binokuler adj. = binocular

biogenetik adj. = biogenetic; regarding genetic engineering

biografi n. = biography; a story written about of a person's life

biologi n. = biology; the science and study of plants and animals

bionik adj. = bionic; regarding the use of devices with human-like functions

biopsi n. = biopsy; a medical examination of removed body tissue

bioritme n. = biorhythm; a recurring pattern of physiological states in an organism

biosfer n. = biosphere; the livable area of planet earth

bioteknologi n. = biotechnology; development of micro organisms for useful purposes

bir n. = beer; a fermented alcoholic drink

biro n. = bureau; office

birokrasi n. = bureaucracy; governmental administrative system

birokrat n. = bureaucrat; a government official or administrator

biseksual adj. = bisexual; being sexually attracted to both males and females

biseps n. = biceps; a double-headed muscle; a muscle of the upper arm

biskit n. = biscuit; cracker

bisnis n. = business

blokade n. = a blockade

blujins n. = blue jeans; denim pants

boikot n. = a boycott; a refusal to do business with someone

bom n. = bomb; an explosive device

bom atom = atomic bomb

bombardemen n. = bombardment; repeated shelling

bonafid adj. = bona fide; genuine; in good faith

bos n. = boss; a work supervisor; a foreman; ramrod

botani n. = botany; the science and study of plants

botol n. = bottle; jar; a glass container

bouksit n. = bauxite; a mineral that contains aluminum-producing ore

brokoli n. = broccoli; a variety of cauliflower; a type of green vegetable

buletin n. = bulletin; a short news report

cek n. = a check; a monetary draft

coklat n. = chocolate

coktail n. = cocktail; a mixed drink usually containing alcohol

dasbor n. = instrument panel; dashboard of a vehicle

deduktif adj. = deductive; based on logical deduction

defakto adj. = de facto; existing in fact but without legal basis

defensif adj. = defensive; intended as a defense

definitif adj. = definitive; providing a final decision

defisit n. = deficit; a negative balance; deficiency

degeneratif adj. = degenerative; indicating gradual deterioration

dekade n. = decade; a time period of ten years

demokratik adj. = democratic; relating to democracy

departemen n. = department; ministry

derivatif n. = derivative; a word derived from another more basic word

dermatologi n. = dermatology; the study and treatment of skin disorders

desibel n. = decibel; a measurement unit for sound loudness

desimal n. = decimal; a one-tenth unit; a numeric symbol indicating tenths

deskriptif adj. = descriptive; describing

despotisme n. = despotism; tyranny

detektif n. = detective; a police officer who investigates crimes

detergen n. = detergent; laundry soap

determinatif adj. = determinative; conclusive

diabolik adj. = diabolic; devilish; fiendish

diagnostik adj. = diagnostic; related to a diagnosis

dikotomi n. = dichotomy; a division into two parts

diktator n. = dictator; an absolute ruler

diktatorial adj. = dictatorial; acting like a dictator

diktum n. = dictum; a formal expression of opinion

dilema n. = dilemma; a quandary; having a difficult choice

dinamik adj. = dynamic; forceful; energetic

dinamo n. = dynamo; electrical generator; magneto

dinasti n. = dynasty; a series of rulers descended from a single family line

diplomatik adj. = diplomatic; tactful; regarding diplomacy

direktori n. = directory; a reference book of listings (telephone numbers, etc.)

disain n. = design; plan

disel n. = diesel fuel; diesel engine

disenteri n. = dysentery; an inflammatory disease of the bowels

disharmoni n. = disharmony; discord; dissonance; condition of not being harmonious

disinsentif n. = disincentive; discouragement; a situation which discourages incentive

disiplin n. = discipline; self-control; training for orderly behavior

disket n. = diskette; floppy disc; a disk used for storing computer files and data

disko n. = disco; discotheque; disco music

diskon n. = discount; price reduction; reduction from normal cost

diskors n. = discourse; discussion; conversation

diskotek n. = discotheque; a nightclub with loud music and dancing

diskredit v. = to discredit; harm someone's reputation or credibility

diskrepansi n. = discrepancy; an unexplained difference

diskus n. = discus; a type of disc hurled in a sporting competition

disleksia n. = dyslexia; a physical disorder affecting a person's ability to read and write

displai n. = display; exhibit; a showing

distrik n. = district; a geographic or political area smaller than a region

divergensi n. = divergence; diversion

dividen n. = dividend; a distributed share of profits

dogmatik adj. = dogmatic; regarding dogma

dokter n. = doctor; physician

doktor n. = doctorate degree; a Ph.D. degree

doktrin n. = doctrine; dogma; tenet

dokumen n. = document; a formal writing

dolar n. = dollar

dolfin n. = dolphin; a type of porpoise

dolomit n. = dolomite; a type of mineral in crystal form

domestik adj. = domestic; referring to home country; not foreign

dormansi n. = dormancy; inactivity; inaction

draf n. = draft document; a preliminary document

dramatik adj. = dramatic; striking; regarding drama

duplikat n. = duplicate; copy

e-bisnis n. = e-business; electronic business

efek n. = effect; result; consequence; ramification

efektif adj. = effective; effectual

efisien adj. = efficient; having good productivity

egoistik adj. = egoistic; conceited; selfish

eklips n. = eclipse; when light from outer space is blocked from view on earth

eko n. = echo; a sound reflected back to its source

ekologi n. = ecology; the study of living organisms and their natural environment

ekonomi n. = economy

ekosistem n. = ecosystem

ekoturisme n. = ecotourism

eksentrik adj. = eccentric; zany; odd or unusual

ekses n. = excess; surplus

eksklusif adj. = exclusive; excluding; special

eksotik adj. = exotic; strange; bizarre; weird

eksperimen n. = experiment; a testing or trial procedure

eksperimental adj. = experimental; regarding experimentation

eksplisit adj. = explicit; definite; expressly and clearly stated

eksplosif adj. = explosive; having a tendency to explode

ekspo n. = expo; exposition; public exhibition

eksponen n. = exponent; a mathematical symbol representing a factor or power

eksponensial adj. = exponential; regarding a mathematical factor or power

ekspor n. = export; goods shipped out of the country

ekstasi n. = ecstasy; a feeling of extreme happiness

ekstatik adj. = ecstatic; overjoyed; very happy

eksterior n. = an exterior; an outside part

ekstra adj. = extra; additional; excess

ekstrak n. = extract; an extracted or removed substance

ekstrakurikuler adj. = extracurricular; outside of the normal curriculum or program

ekstrayudisial adj. = extrajudicial; outside of a legal system

ekstrem adj. = extreme; severe; radical; of a high degree; drastic; fanatic

ekstremis n. = extremist; a radical

ekstremisme n. = extremism; radicalism

ekstrovert n. = extrovert; a sociable person

ekuator n. = equator; the imaginary line around the earth

ekuilibrium n. = equilibrium; the condition of being in balance or equal

ekuinoks n. = equinox; the two times during the year when days and nights are equal length

ekuiti n. = equity; investment capital

ekuivalen n. = equivalent; equal to

elastik adj. = elastic; rubbery

elegan adj. = elegant; graceful; sheik

elektoral adj. = electoral; regarding electors or voters

elektorat n. = electorate; the voting public

elektrik adj. = electric; having electricity

elektrode n. = electrode; a type of electrical conductor

elektron n. = electron

elektronik adj. = electronic

elips n. = ellipse; an oval-shaped figure

embrio n. = embryo; an undeveloped or unborn offspring

endemik adj. = endemic; commonly existing in a specific area

endorsemen n. = endorsement

energi n. = energy; vigor; force

entomologi n. = entomology; the science and study of insects

entri n. = entry; an item entered (in notebook, ledger, etc.)

enzim n. = enzyme; a digestive juice

epik n. = epic; a long narrative story or poem

epilepsi n. = epilepsy; a disorder of the nervous system with convulsions

epileptik adj. = epileptic; suffering from epilepsy; a sufferer of epilepsy

epitaf n. = epitaph; a gravestone memorial message

erotik adj. = erotic; regarding sexual desire and excitement

eskalator n. = escalator; a moving staircase

esoterik adj. = esoteric; difficult to understand

etimologi n. = etymology; the science and study of word origins and meanings

etnik adj. = ethnic; regarding racial groupings of humans

eulogi n. = eulogy; a praising of a person (usually deceased)

eutanasia n. = euthanasia; mercy killing

faktor n. = factor; thing; a consideration

famili n. = family; kin

fanatik n. = fanatic; zealot

fantasi n. = fantasy; an imagined mental image

fatalisme n. = fatalism; belief in predestiny

favorit adj. = favorite; preferred

favoritisme n. = favoritism; favoring one person or group over others

Februari n. = February

federalis n. = federalist

federalisme n. = federalism

feminin adj. = feminine; concerning women

feminis n. = feminist; a person who strongly supports the rights of women

feminisme n. = feminism; a doctrine supporting the rights of women

fenomena n. = phenomenon; something remarkable

fenomenal adj. = phenomenal; fantastic

feodal adj. = feudal; regarding feudalism

feodalisme n. = feudalism; medieval system of land use

feodalistik adj. = feudalistic; regarding feudalism

feri n. = ferry; a boat for transport of passengers and vehicles

fiasko n. = fiasco; a miserable failure

figmen n. = figment; something imagined (and not real)

figur n. = a figure; a well-known person; numeric character

filamen n. = filament; a fine fiber for conducting electricity (as in a light bulb)

filantropi n. = philanthropy; benevolence

filosofi n. = philosophy; a system of thinking about the nature of things

finalis n. = finalist; a person in the final group of contestants

finansial adj. = financial; regarding money and finances

finis n. = finish; the end

fitur n. = feature; appearance; an accessory

flamboyan adj. = flamboyant; showy; flashy

flanel n. = flannel; a type of soft woolen fabric

fleksibel adj. = flexible; supple; pliable

fonetik adj. = phonetic; relating to vocal sounds

forensik adj. = forensic; relating to evidence used in courts of law

forklif n. = forklift; a vehicle with a lifting device like a fork

formalistik adj. = formalistic; emphasizing form over substance

fosil n. = fossil; the hardened remains of prehistoric plants and animals

foto n. = photo; photograph

fotogenik adj. = photogenic; tending to be a good subject for photography

fotografi n. = photography

fotokopi n. = photocopy; a photographic copy

fragmen n. = fragment; piece; portion; chip

fundamentalis n. = fundamentalist; a person with fundamental beliefs

futuristik adj. = futuristic; very up-to-date

galaksi n. = galaxy; a very large cluster of stars

galeri n. = gallery; a viewing room or area

gangrin n. = gangrene; decay of body tissue

genealogi n. = genealogy; a line of family descent

generik adj. = generic; general; fungible

genosid n. = genocide; a systematic extermination of a large group of people

geodesik adj. = geodesic; regarding the study of planet earth and its shape

geografi n. = geography; study of earth's physical features

geologi n. = geology; the study of the earth's crust and subsurface

geometri n. = geometry; mathematical study of shapes, surfaces and lines

geotermal adj. = geothermal; relating to the earth's internal heat

gimnasium n. = gymnasium; gym; a building for athletic events

gimnastik n. = gymnastic; regarding physical exercise and athletic agility

ginekologi n. = gynecology; medical branch dealing with female reproductive systems

gipsi n. = gypsy; a migratory race of people

gitar n. = guitar; a stringed musical instrument

gitaris n. = guitarist; a person who plays guitar

glamor n. = glamour; charm; enchantment

glaukoma n. = glaucoma; a type of eye disorder

globalisme n. = globalism

gol n. = a goal; a score

gorila n. = gorilla; a large ape

gosip n. = gossip; hearsay; idle talk

gramatikal adj. = grammatical; regarding grammar

gramme n. = gram; a metric unit of weight

granit n. = granite; a type of hard crystalline rock

guakamole n. = guacamole; a food of avocado with spices

handikap n. = handicap; disability

harmoni n. = harmony; accord

harmonika n. = harmonica; a mouth organ musical instrument

hegemoni n. = hegemony; central control and leadership

heksagon n. = hexagon; a six-sided figure

helikopter n. = helicopter

heliks n. = helix; a spiral

hemisfer n. = hemisphere; half of a sphere

hemoroid n. = hemorrhoids; a painful swelling in the anus

heroik adj. = heroic; being like a hero

hidraulik adj. = hydraulic; regarding water and water usage

hierarki n. = hierarchy; a grading or ranking order

higiene n. = hygiene; sanitary cleanliness

hiperaktif adj. = hyperactive; abnormally active and agitated

hipnosis n. = hypnosis; an induced deep trance

hipnotis adj. = hypnotic; regarding hypnotism

hipnotisme n. = hypnotism; the practice of placing persons in hypnotic trances

hipochondria n. = hypochondria; a type of mental depression

hipotermia n. = hypothermia; a dangerously low body temperature

hirarki n. = hierarchy; a ranked or graded ordering

histamin n. = histamine

histeria n. = hysteria; uncontrolled emotion or excitement

histori n. = history; the study of past events; a record of prior events

historik adj. = historic; historical

historikal adj. = historic; historical

hobi n. = hobby; a favorite pastime activity

hoki n. = hockey; a sporting game played with sticks and a net (for a goal)

holistik adj. = holistic; whole; treating the whole body (for health care)

homonim n. = homonym; words with similar spellings but different meanings

homoseksual adj. = homosexual; gay; being attracted to members of the same sex

hormon n. = hormone; a secretion from a body gland that stimulates growth

horoskop n. = horoscope; an astrological prediction of future events

hortikultur n. = horticulture; the science and skill of plant cultivation and gardening

hoverkraft n. = hovercraft; a vehicle that hovers and moves on a cushion of air

humanisme n. = humanism; basic concern for the welfare of people in general

idealisme n. = idealism; imagining perfection

ideologi n. = ideology; a science or system of ideas

imperatif adj. = imperative; obligatory; mandatory; commanding

imperialisme n. = imperialism; regarding empires

implisit adj. = implicit; implied

impor n. = import; to bring something into a country

impoten adj. = impotent; not potent; without potency

impotensi n. = impotency; without potency

impresif adj. = impressive; imposing

impresionisme n. = impressionism

impresionistik adj. = impressionistic; tending to create a lasting mental image

indeks n. = index; an alphabetical list of references

independen adj. = independent; free and not dependent

indikatif adj. = indicative; indicating; pointing out

individualisme n. = individualism; self-reliance

infinitif n. = infinitive; the basic form of a verb without inflection

inkognito adv. = incognito; under false name and identity

inkompeten adj. = incompetent; not competent; incapable; not capable

inkonsisten adj. = inconsistent; erratic; not consistent

insiden n. = incident; occurrence; event

insolvensi n. = insolvency; bankruptcy; inability to pay one's debts

inspektur n. = inspector; examiner; a person who inspects or examines

institut n. = institute; a type of non-business organization

instrumen n. = instrument; implement; tool

insurgensi n. = insurgency; rebellion; uprising

intelektual adj. = intellectual; regarding intellect

inteligen adj. = intelligent; smart; clever

intens adj. = intense; acute; severe

interaktif adj. = interactive; regarding mutual and reactive communication

interdisiplin adj. = interdisciplinary; involving different disciplines

intoleran adj. = intolerant; not tolerant

intoleransi n. = intolerance; the condition of not being tolerant

intransitif adj. = intransitive; not transitive; not taking a direct object (sentence structure)

intrinsik adj. = intrinsic; inherent; basic and essential

intuitif adj. = intuitive; instinctive

iodin n. = iodine; a type of red liquid used as an antiseptic

ironi n. = irony; a contrary outcome that is strange to imagine

isoterm n. = isotherm; a line on a weather map indicating temperature

isotop n. = isotope

italik n. = italic; a sloping or slanting style of printing

jaket n. = jacket; coat; cloak

judisial adj. = judicial; regarding law courts, judges and the legal system

juri n. = jury; a group of common people used for determining facts in a court of law

jurnal n. = journal; a periodic publication; a daily writing book

jurnalistik adj. = journalistic; relating to journalism

jus n. = juice; the natural liquid contained in fruits and vegetables

kabel n. = cable; wire; cord

kadaver n. = cadaver; corpse

kadet n. = cadet; a student in a military school

kafe n. = cafe; restaurant

kafein n. = caffeine; a stimulant found in coffee and tea

kaktus n. = cactus; a type of dry weather plant with sharp spines

kaldera n. = caldera; the collapsed remnants of a volcano cone

kaldron n. = cauldron; large kettle or pot

kaleidoskop n. = kaleidoscope; a constantly changing scene that is colorful and interesting

kaliber n. = caliber; a measurement of the diameter of the inside of a gun barrel

kaligrafi n. = calligraphy; handwriting; penmanship

kalistenik n. = calisthenics; a type of organized physical exercise

kalkulator n. = calculator; an instrument for performing numeric calculations

kalkulus n. = calculus; a branch of higher mathematics

kalori n. = calorie; a unit of heat; the energy potential of digested food

kalsium n. = calcium; a metallic substance derived from lime

kamera n. = camera

kampus n. = campus; the grounds and buildings of an educational institution

kandidat n. = candidate; applicant; aspirant

kanguru n. = kangaroo; a large Australian marsupial with strong hind legs

kanibal n. = cannibal; a person who eats human flesh

kanopi n. = canopy; an overhanging covering

kantin n. = canteen; an informal dining area

kanvas n. = canvas; a type of heavy-duty fabric

kapitalisme n. = capitalism; private enterprise economic system

kapitalistik adj. = capitalistic; regarding capitalism

kapsul n. = capsule; a type of small container

karakteristik n. = characteristic; distinctive feature; attribute

karburator n. = carburetor; a device that mixes air and fuel for combustion

kardiologi n. = cardiology; the branch of medicine concerned with the heart

kardiovaskuler adj. = cardiovascular; concerned with the heart and blood vessels

karisma n. = charisma; having an inspiring personality

karismatik adj. = charismatic; having an inspiring personality

kartel n. = cartel; a group formed to control prices

kartun n. = cartoon; a humorous drawing

katalis n. = catalyst; activating agent

katapel n. = catapult; slingshot

katedral n. = cathedral; a large type of church

kategori n. = category; grouping

katering n. = catering; a business of providing food and services for special events

kilowat n. = kilowatt; a unit of electrical measurement equal to 1,000 watts

kinetik adj. = kinetic; regarding motion and force

kios n. = kiosk; news stand; small shop

klandestin adj. = clandestine; surreptitious; secret

klarinet n. = clarinet; a type of woodwind musical instrument

klasik adj. = classic; having lasting value and interest

klasikal adj. = classical; regarding things with lasting value and interest

klaustrofobia n. = claustrophobia; an excessive fear of being confined in a small area

klaustrofobik adj. = claustrophobic; having an excessive fear of confinement

klemensi n. = clemency; mercy

kleptomaniak n. = kleptomaniac; a person with an obsessive urge to steal

klimaks n. = climax; culmination

klimatologi n. = climatology; the study of climate

klinik n. = clinic; a health care facility

kloning n. = cloning; producing an identical genetic copy

koaksial adj. = coaxial; a type of cable with two conductors

kode n. = code; encryption

kodein n. = codeine; a morphine derivative used to relieve pain

koefisien n. = coefficient; multiplier

koheren adj. = coherent; cohesive

koherensi n. = coherence; cohesiveness

koliseum n. = coliseum; amphitheater

koloni n. = colony; a distant territory controlled by a stronger country

kolonial adj. = colonial; regarding a colony or colonization

kolonialisme n. = colonialism

kolumnis n. = columnist; a person who writes a periodic newspaper article

komando n. = commando; a member of a special military force

komedi n. = comedy; theatre; show

komedian n. = comedian; a humorist

komet n. = comet; an object in outer space with a visible trail or "tail"

komfort n. = comfort; ease; well being

komidi n. = comedy

komik n. = comic; a humorist

komikal adj. = comical; funny

komisioner n. = commissioner; a member of a commission or board

komiti n. = committee; a group of people formed for a special purpose

komoditi n. = commodity; goods; an article of trade

kompatibel adj. = compatible; suitable

kompetitif adj. = competitive; having a competing nature

kompetitor n. = competitor; challenger; a person who competes

komponen n. = component; part; a constituent part

komprehensif n. = comprehensive; all-inclusive

komputer n. = computer

komunis n. = communist; an advocate of communism

komunisme n. = communism; a social system with strong central control

kondom n. = condom; a contraceptive device for men

konduktor n. = conductor; a person or thing that conducts

kondusif adj. = conducive; helping to bring about; tending to aid or assist

konformis n. = conformist; a person who conforms or adapts

konformisme n. = conformism; behaving or thinking in generally accepted ways

kongenital adj. = congenital; existing at birth

konifer n. = conifer tree; coniferous tree

konklusif adj. = conclusive; determinative; definitive

konsensus n. = consensus; a general agreement without dissent

konsep n. = concept; a rough draft

konser n. = concert; musical performance; recital

konsisten adj. = consistent; constant; unchanging

konsonan n. = consonant; a letter of the alphabet other than a vowel

konstitusional adj. = constitutional; in accordance with the constitution

konsul n. = consul; a government's representative in a foreign city

konsulat n. = consulate; the office of a consul general in a foreign city

konsumerisme n. = consumerism

konteks n. = context

kontes n. = contest; competition

kontestan n. = contestant; a competitor; contender

kontinen n. = continent; one of the seven largest land masses on planet Earth

kontinental adj. = continental; regarding the continents of planet Earth

kontingensi n. = contingency; an event that is dependent on the occurrence of some other event

kontinu adj. = continuous; ongoing; occurring without stoppage

kontradiktif adj. = contradictive; tending to contradict; being opposed to

kontrak n. = contract; a business contract; a rental lease agreement

kontraseptif n. = contraceptive; a birth control device or drug

kontrol n. = control

kontroversi n. = controversy; dispute; polemic

kontroversial adj. = controversial; subject to controversy

kontur n. = contour; the outline or outer shape of an object

konveks adj. = convex; having an outward curving surface

konvensional adj. = conventional; usual

konvoi n. = convoy; a group traveling together for protection

koordinat n. = a coordinate

kopilot n. = copilot; the person who assists a pilot in flying an airplane

kornea n. = cornea; a membrane covering the front of an eyeball

korona n. = corona; a light that appears like a halo around the sun or moon

korpulensi n. = corpulence; corpulency

korpus n. = corpus; principal

korsase n. = corsage; a type of flower often worn with clothing

korset n. = corset; bodice; girdle

korteks n. = cortex; the outer area of a body organ or other substance

kortison n. = cortisone; a synthetic hormone

korup adj. = corrupt; malfeasant; unethical

kosmik adj. = cosmic; relating to the cosmos; regarding the universe

kosmopolitan adj. = cosmopolitan; regarding diverse cultures and parts of the world

kosmos n. = cosmos; universe

kostum n. = costume; a special clothing outfit

kreatif adj. = creative; imaginative; inventive

kredit n. = credit

kriminal n. = criminal; a person convicted of breaking the law

kriminologi n. = criminology; the study of crime

krisis n. = crisis; a time of danger or extreme difficulty

kriteria n. = criteria; criterion

kroni n. = crony; a close friend

kronik n. = chronicle; a recording of events in their order of occurrence

kronologi n. = chronology; a time sequence of events

kru n. = crew; a group of workers

krusial adj. = crucial; critical; decisive; pivotal; vital

kuadran n. = quadrant; a quarter (one fourth) of a circle

kualitatif adj. = qualitative; concerned with quality (rather than quantity)

kuantitatif adj. = quantitative; regarding quantity (rather than quality)

kuantum n. = quantum; quantity; total amount

kuartet n. = quartet; a foursome; a group of four

kubik adj. = cubic; cubical; cube shaped

kultur n. = culture

kultural adj. = cultural; regarding culture

kursor n. = cursor; a computer screen pointer

kustodi n. = custody

kustomer n. = customer; patron

legislatif adj. = legislative; regarding a legislature and its activities

leksikal adj. = lexical; regarding the words of a language

leksikologi n. = lexicology; the study of words

liberalisme n. = liberalism; philosophy favoring tolerance and willingness to change

ligamen n. = ligament; strong fibrous body tissue that connects bones at a joint

lignit n. = lignite; a type of soft coal

likuid adj. = liquid; being fluid (like water)

linimen n. = liniment; a medicinal fluid used to relieve aches or muscle strains

lipstik n. = lipstick; a cosmetic for coloring the lips

lirik n. = lyric; lyrics; the words of a poem or song

literatur n. = literature; writings

lobi n. = a lobby; foyer; an area near the entrance of a public building

lokomotif n. = locomotive; a train engine; an engine or driving force

magik n. = magic; a mysterious power

magnetik adj. = magnetic; regarding magnetism

magnetisme n. = magnetism; a force that attracts certain metals to other metals

magnit n. = magnet; a type of metal that has an attraction to certain other metals

makeral n. = mackerel; a type of long and thin salt water fish

makro pre. = macro; a prefix meaning large or big

makroekonomi n. = macroeconomy; the economy as a whole on a large scale

maksimal adj. = maximal; being maximum

maksimum adj. = maximum; the most possible; a cap or limit; a ceiling

malpraktek n. = malpractice; improper or negligent professional conduct

mamogram n. = mammogram; an x-ray to test for breast cancer in women

manajerial adj. = managerial; regarding management

manikur n. = manicure; a beauty treatment of the fingernails and hands

manufaktur v. = to manufacture; to produce

manuskrip n. = manuscript; a lengthy writing

manuver n. = maneuver; gambit; an organized and planned movement

maraton n. = a marathon; a long-distance race of about 26 miles

margarin n. = margarine; oleomargarine

margin n. = margin; edge; the blank area at the edges of a printed page

marionet n. = marionette; a puppet manipulated by strings attached to limbs

martir n. = martyr; a person who suffers while defending religious beliefs

maskara n. = mascara; a cosmetic for coloring eyelashes

maskot n. = mascot; an object that is believed to bring good luck

maskulin adj. = masculine; manly; macho

masokis n. = masochist; a person who enjoys receiving mistreatment

masokisme n. = masochism; condition of enjoying mistreatment

masokistik adj. = masochistic; enjoying mistreatment, abuse or humiliation

mastektomi n. = mastectomy; surgical removal of a breast

masturbasi n. = masturbation; self stimulation of the genitals for sexual gratification

matematika n. = mathematics; the science of numbers and numeric calculations

materialisme n. = materialism; preferring tangible possessions over spiritual development

matriarkal adj. = matriarchal; motherly rule of a family or clan

matriks n. = matrix; an array of elements treated as a single element

megafon n. = megaphone; a device for magnifying the sound of a voice

megalit n. = megalith; a huge stone

mekanik n. = mechanic; a person who repairs machinery

mekanisme n. = mechanism; a system of machine parts working together

melodi n. = melody; tune; a musical arrangement

melodramatik adj. = melodramatic; being overly dramatic or emotional

membran n. = membrane; body tissue similar to skin

memori n. = memory; ability to remember something; computer storage memory

mentol n. = menthol; a flavoring with a mint taste and aroma

mentor n. = a teacher or instructor

merkuri n. = mercury; a silver-colored metal that is liquid at room temperature

metabolisme n. = metabolism; the process of chemical change in a living organism

metafor n. = metaphor; a word or term used in a figurative way

metalik adj. = metallic; regarding metals; being similar to a metal

metalurgi n. = metallurgy; the science and study of metals

metamfetamin n. = methamphetamine

metamorfik adj. = metamorphic; transforming

metamorfosis n. = metamorphosis; transformation; a natural change of form

meteorit n. = meteorite; the remnant of a meteor that strikes the earth's surface

metrik adj. = metric; regarding the metric measuring system

mikrobe n. = microbe; a living organism too small to be seen without a microscope

mikrobiologi n. = microbiology; the study of microscopic living organisms

mikrofon n. = microphone

mikroorganisme n. = microorganism; a very small organism

mikroskop n. = microscope; a powerful magnifying instrument

mikroskopik adj. = microscopic; too small to be seen without a microscope

milenium n. = millennium; a time period of 1,000 years

miligram n. = milligram; one thousandth of a gram

milimeter n. = millimeter; one thousandth of a meter

militan adj. = militant; combative; warlike

militansi n. = militancy; combativeness

militerisme n. = militarism; having an aggressive military attitude

militeristik adj. = militaristic; regarding the military

mimik n. = a mimic; a person who imitates a person's characteristics

miniatur adj. = miniature; of a very small scale

miopik adj. = myopic

misteri n. = mystery; an unexplained or unresolved matter

misterius adj. = mysterious; being a mystery

mitologi n. = mythology; the study of myths

monokrom n. = monochrome; a single color object

monolit n. = monolith; an ancient large stone monument

monopoli n. = monopoly; an exclusive form of business without competition

monopolistik adj. = monopolistic; tending to monopolize; desiring exclusive control

monoton adj. = monotonous; having an unchanging tone

morfologi n. = morphology; the study of the structure and formation of things

motor n. = motor; engine

mozaik n. = mosaic; a decorative picture made from many colorful fragments

multinasional adj. = multinational; involving many nations

mumi n. = mummy; a preserved and embalmed corpse

musik n. = music

musik rok = rock and roll music

naratif n. = narrative; an account of events in the order they occurred

narkotik adj. = narcotic; a drug with intoxicating or stupefying effects

naturalisme n. = naturalism; a philosophy emphasizing the natural world

nautikal adj. = nautical; maritime; relating to sea travel and navigation

nekrofilia n. = necrophilia; an unnatural attraction to death and corpses

nektarin n. = nectarine; a type of peach with a smooth skin

neokolonial adj. = neocolonial

neolitik adj. = Neolithic

nepotisme n. = nepotism; political favoritism

netral adj. = neutral; moderate; impartial; unbiased; objective; nonaligned

neurologi n. = neurology; the study of nervous systems

neurologik adj. = neurological; concerning nervous system disorders

neurotik adj. = neurotic; being overly anxious or worried

nikotin n. = nicotine; the harmful alkaloid substance in tobacco

nilon n. = nylon; a synthetic fiber

nitrat n. = nitrate; a substance derived from nitric acid used as a fertilizer

nomenklatur n. = nomenclature; terminology

nonaktif adj. = non-active; not activated

nostalgik adj. = nostalgic; preferring a prior period of time

nudisme n. = nudism; the practice of nudity

nuklir adj. = nuclear; regarding the nucleus of an atom

numerik adj. = numeric; numerical; regarding numbers

obituari n. = obituary; a public notice or record of a person's death

objek n. = object; thing; article

objektif n. = objective; goal; purpose

obsesif adj. = obsessive; maniacal; overly concerned

oktagon n. = octagon; an eight-sided figure

oktan n. = octane; a type of liquid hydrocarbon

Oktober n. = October

okultisme n. = occultism; supernatural beliefs

oligarki n. = oligarchy; a form of government controlled by a small group of people

oligopoli n. = oligopoly; control of commerce by a small group

oportunistik adj. = opportunistic; tending to take advantage of opportunity

optik adj. = optic; regarding the eyes, eyesight or vision

optikal adj. = optical; regarding the eyes, eyesight or vision

optimistik adj. = optimistic; sanguine; believing that good will happen

organik adj. = organic; derived from living organisms

organisme n. = organism; a living creature

orgasme n. = orgasm; a sexual climax

ornamen n. = ornament; decoration

ornitologi n. = ornithology; bird science; the study of birds

ortodoks adj. = orthodox; conventional

otobiografi n. = autobiography; memoirs

otopsi n. = autopsy; a formal medical examination of a corpse

ozon n. = ozone; a layer of oxygen in the stratosphere

paedofil n. = pedophile; an adult who has immoral sexual contact with children

paedofilia n. = pedophilia; illegal sexual contact with children by adults

paganisme n. = paganism; heathenism

paleolitik adj. = Paleolithic; regarding the early part of the stone age

paleontologi n. = paleontology; the study of ancient life forms and fossils

panik n. = panic; impulsive and uncontrolled fear

pankreas n. = pancreas; a body organ near the stomach that secretes juices

panoramik adj. = panoramic; similar to a panorama

pantomim n. = pantomime; mime

paradoks n. = paradox; something contradictory or absurd but yet true

paragraf n. = paragraph; a group of related sentences with a common theme

paralelisme n. = parallelism; using consistent grammatical forms in a sentence

parasit n. = parasite; a creature that lives off another

parodi n. = parody; a mocking; an exaggerated copying

paternalistik adj. = paternalistic; behaving like parents

patologi n. = pathology; the study of disease

patriotik adj. = patriotic; devoted to one's country

pedagog n. = pedagogue; teacher; school master

penalti n. = penalty; fine; punishment

penisilin n. = penicillin; a type of antibiotic medicine

pensil n. = pencil; a writing instrument that uses graphite lead

peperoni n. = pepperoni; a type of spicy sausage

pepsin n. = pepsin; an enzyme produced in the stomach to aid digestion

peptik adj. = peptic; concerning the stomach's digestive process

periodik adj. = periodic; occurring at regular intervals

periodikal n. = periodical; a publication issued at regular intervals

perseptif adj. = perceptive; insightful; intuitive

perspektif n. = perspective; viewpoint

pesimisme n. = pessimism; looking at the gloomy side of things

pesimistik adj. = pessimistic; downbeat; having a negative outlook or attitude

piramid n. = pyramid; ancient Egyptian tombs for kings

piromaniak n. = pyromaniac; a person who has an abnormal desire to set fires

piroteknik adj. = pyrotechnic; regarding fireworks displays

piza n. = pizza

plagiarisme n. = plagiarism; illegally copying the created works of another

plastik n. = plastic

pluralisme n. = pluralism; a doctrine favoring inclusion of all groups

pluralistik adj. = pluralistic; tending to favor inclusion of all groups

podiatri n. = podiatri; the branch of medicine dealing with foot disorders

polemik n. = polemic; argument; dispute; controversy

poliester adj. = polyester; a synthetic fabric made from polymer

poligami n. = polygamy; having more than one spouse

poliglot n. = polyglot; a person who is able to speak several languages

poligon n. = polygon; a many-sided figure

poligraf n. = polygraph; lie detector instrument

polimer n. = polymer; a compound of various sized molecules

politik n. = politics; the art of governing

populer adj. = popular; pop; liked by many people

populisme n. = populism

pornografi n. = pornography; obscenity

portabel adj. = portable; movable; hand-held

postulat n. = postulate; axiom; precondition

potasium n. = potassium; a type of white metallic element

potensi n. = potency; strength; ability

potensial n. = potential; capability; unused capacity

prefiks n. = a prefix

primitif adj. = primitive; crude; undeveloped

proaktif adj. = proactive; tending to take the initiative

problematik adj. = problematic; tending to be a problem

produk n. = product; something produced

produktif adj. = productive; gainful; fruitful

profesor n. = professor; a college or university teacher

profil n. = profile; an outline view of an object

profilaktik adj. = prophylactic; protective; preventive

progresif adj. = progressive; moving forward; up-to-date

prolog n. = prologue; a preliminary discussion

properti n. = property; an owned asset

prosedur n. = procedure; method; manner of doing something

prosedural adj. = procedural

protagonis n. = protagonist; proponent; advocate; leading person

protes n. = protest; objection; remonstrance

protokol n. = protocol; diplomatic etiquette

prototipe n. = prototype; trial model

provokatif adj. = provocative; tending to provoke or cause strong reaction

psikosomatik adj. = psychosomatic; related to mental causes rather than physical causes

publik n. = public; not private; the community in general

punitif adv. = punitive; done as punishment

radikal adj. = radical; drastic; fundamental; extreme; fanatical

radikalisme n. = radicalism; holding extreme views

radioaktif adj. = radioactive; emitting radiation

radiologi n. = radiology; the use of radiation for medical imaging

rapsodi n. = rhapsody; a type of romantic melody

rasial adj. = racial; regarding the human races

rasialisme n. = racialism; racism; having racial biases and preferences

rasisme n. = racism; a feeling of racial superiority

realisme n. = realism; viewing or considering things as they really are

realistik adj. = realistic; appearing to be real; seeming real

refleks n. = reflex; an automatic response; an involuntary reaction

reformis adj. = reformist; tending to reform

regresif adj. = regressive; regressing; going backwards

reliabel adj. = reliable; dependable; able to be relied on

remedi n. = a remedy; a cure; fixing; getting something right

repetitif adj. = repetitive; repetitious

replika n. = replica; a model or copy

representatif adj. = representative; typical; suitable as an example

represif adj. = repressive; holding down; suppressing

reproduktif adj. = reproductive; regarding reproduction; able to reproduce

reptil n. = reptile; a cold-blooded creature that crawls

republik n. = republic; a form of government with minimal central control

resepsionis n. = receptionist; a person who greets guests and visitors

reseptif adj. = receptive; willing to consider new ideas or changes

residen n. = resident; denizen; a person who lives at a certain place

residu n. = residue; remainder; amount left over

respons n. = response; reply; rejoinder; reaction

responsif adj. = responsive; being quick to respond or reply

restoran n. = restaurant; cafe

restriktif adj. = restrictive; tending to restrict; confining; limiting

retroaktif adj. = retroactive; being effective from a prior date

reversibel adj. = reversible; able to be reversed

rezim n. = regime; the government in power

roket n. = rocket; a self-propelled missile; a projectile

romantik adj. = romantic; having the feeling of romance

royalti n. = royalty; a payment made to the creator of something published

rute n. = route; way; course of travel

ruting n. = routing; channeling along a certain path

sabatikal n. = sabbatical; a temporary leave from work

sabotase n. = to sabotage; to disrupt or interfere with

sadisme n. = sadism; perversion of enjoying cruelty

sakarin n. = saccharin; a type of food substitute for sugar

saksofon n. = saxophone; a type of wind musical instrument

sarkasme n. = sarcasm; scornful or sarcastic language

satelit n. = satellite; an orbiting object

sedatif n. = sedative; a calming or tranquilizing drug

sedimen n. = sediment; settlings

segmen n. = segment; section; sector

seismik adj. = seismic; regarding earth tremors and earthquakes

seismograf n. = seismograph; an instrument for measuring seismic activity

seismologi n. = seismology; the study of earthquakes

sekretariat n. = secretariat; the office and place of a secretary

seks n. = sex; condition of being either male or female

seksual adj. = sexual; having to do with sex

sektarian adj. = sectarian; narrow-minded

sektarianisme n. = sectarianism; narrow-mindedness

sekte n. = sect; denomination; a group of people sharing similar beliefs

sektor n. = sector; part; section; area

sekularisme n. = secularism; doctrine of separation of religion from government

sekularistik adj. = secularistic; regarding the separation of religion from government

sekuler adj. = secular; worldly; not concerned with religion

sekuriti n. = security; the condition of being secure

selebriti n. = celebrity; a famous person; fame

selektif adj. = selective; choosy; picky; eclectic

selsius n. = Celsius

selulit n. = cellulite; fatty deposits beneath the skin

semantik n. = semantics; the branch of linguistics dealing with meaning

semen n. = cement; concrete

semikonduktor n. = semiconductor; an electrical conductor with moderate resistance

seminari n. = a seminary; a religious training school

semiotik adj. = semiotic; regarding symbols and signs

semitisme n. = Semitism; concerned with Semitic people, especially Jewish people

sensitif adj. = sensitive; touchy; responsive to change; easily affected; delicate

sensor n. = censor; a reviewer of published materials to determine suitability

sensus n. = census; an official counting of population

sentimen n. = sentiment; mental or emotional feeling

sentimentil adj. = sentimental; emotional

sentimeter n. = centimeter

sentral adj. = central; regarding the center

sentralisme n. = centralism; a system or belief in central authority

sentralistik adj. = centralistic; tending to centralize

sentrum n. = centrum; center

separatisme n. = separatism; doctrine favoring separation

sertifikat n. = certificate; a formal document that certifies

servis n. = service

setan n. = satan; devil; demon; beelzebub

sigaret n. = cigarette

signifikan adj. = significant; substantial

silabel n. = syllable; the smallest unit of pronunciation in a word

silabus n. = syllabus; a program outline; a listing of a course of study

silhuet n. = silhouette; a view of an object similar to a shadow or outlined figure

silika n. = silica; silicon dioxide

silikat n. = silicate; a compound of metal with silicon and oxygen

silikon n. = silicon; a type of non-metallic element

silinder n. = cylinder; an object shaped like a tube or pipe

silogisme n. = syllogism; a type of logical reasoning

siluet n. = silhouette; a view of an object like a shadow or outlined figure

simbiosis n. = symbiosis; a mutually beneficial relationship

simbiotik adj. = symbiotic; regarding a mutually beneficial relationship

simbol n. = symbol; emblem; token; sign

simbolik adj. = symbolic; symbolizing; representative; emblematic

simbolisme n. = symbolism; using symbols as a form of communication

simetri n. = symmetry; a balance of proportions between related parts

simfoni n. = symphony; a musical composition

simpati n. = sympathy; compassion; condolence; empathy

simpel adj. = simple; plain and easy

simplistik adj. = simplistic; simple

simposium n. = symposium; an informal conference

simtom n. = symptom; a sign or indication (of illness, etc.)

simtomatik adj. = symptomatic; regarding a symptom

sindikat n. = syndicate; a group working together on a common enterprise

sindrom n. = syndrome; symptoms occurring together in a disease

sinema n. = cinema; motion picture films

sinergi n. = synergy; having an output that exceeds the sum of the inputs

sinergisme n. = synergism; having an output that exceeds the sum of the inputs

sinisisme n. = cynicism; being skeptical and pessimistic

sinonim n. = synonym; words with the same meanings but different spellings

sinopsis n. = synopsis; outline; summary

sintaks n. = syntax; word arrangement rules

sintaktik adj. = syntactic; regarding syntax or word arrangement

sintesis n. = synthesis; a combining of differing elements into a whole

sintetik adj. = synthetic; produced by synthesis; artificial (not natural)

sirkel n. = circle

sirkuit n. = circuit; a circular path, track, etc.

sirkuler n. = circular; pamphlet

sirkumfiks n. = circumfix; a combination of a prefix and a suffix added to a word

sirup n. = syrup; sweet syrup

sistem n. = system; organization

sistematik adj. = systematic; methodical

sistemik adj. = systemic; affecting the entire body; throughout the whole system

skandal n. = scandal; disgraceful behavior causing public outrage

skeptisisme n. = skepticism; cynicism; a doubting or disbelieving attitude

skil n. = skill; expertise; ability to do something well

skizofrenia n. = schizophrenia; a mental disorder with a split personality

skizoid adj. = schizoid; schizophrenic

skolastik adj. = scholastic; relating to scholarship

skor n. = a score

skrip n. = a script; the written text of a play, film, etc.; a system of writing

skuadron n. = squadron; a small military unit (planes, ships, etc.)

skuba n. = scuba; underwater diving gear

sodomi n. = sodomy; anal intercourse

sofbal n. = softball

sofistri n. = sophistry; the use of false and deceptive arguments

solven adj. = solvent; able to pay one's debts; not bankrupt or insolvent

sosial adj. = social; concerning relations with people

sosialisme n. = socialism; a social system based on common ownership and sharing

spageti n. = spaghetti; a type of long and thin pasta

spasial adj. = spacial; spatial; regarding space, area or place

spastik adj. = spastic; relating to spasms or involuntary muscle contractions

spedometer n. = speedometer; an instrument that displays a vehicle's speed

spektakuler adj. = spectacular; magnificent; impressive

spektograf n. = spectrograph; an instrument for recording a spectrum

spektrum n. = spectrum; the entire range of visible colors

spekulatif adj. = speculative; risky; based on speculation

spekulator n. = speculator; a person who speculates

sperma n. = sperm; semen

spesial adj. = special; unusual; uncommon

spesies n. = species; a classification of plants and animals by type

spesifik adj. = specific; certain; particular

spesimen n. = specimen; a single unit taken as an example of a class or type

spidbot n. = speedboat; a fast motorboat

stabil adj. = stable; steady

staf n. = staff; a group of workers

stagnan adj. = stagnant; unchanging; not flowing or moving

stalakmit n. = stalagmite; a cone-shaped limestone deposit formed on the floor of a cave

stalaktit n. = stalactite; a cone-shaped limestone deposit formed on the roof of a cave

stasiun n. = station; terminal; terminus

statik adj. = static; motionless; unchanging; stationary

statistik n. = statistic; a numeric fact

stenografi n. = stenography; shorthand

stensil n. = stencil

stereofonik adj. = stereophonic; regarding a sound system with two soundtracks

stereotipe n. = stereotype; generalization

steril adj. = sterile; sanitary; aseptic; free of contamination

stori n. = story; tale; narrative

strategi n. = strategy; strategic plan; stratagem; ploy; tactic

strategik adj. = strategic; essential; concerning strategy

stratosfir n. = stratosphere; the earth's outer atmosphere

stres n. = stress; strain; mental strain

struktur n. = structure; something constructed; edifice; framework

struktural adj. = structural; regarding structure

studen n. = student

studi n. = study; a formal investigation or inquiry

subentri n. = subentry; a secondary entry; a second tier entry

subjek n. = subject

subjektif adj. = subjective; personal preference; not objective

subkontraktor n. = subcontractor; a contractor working for another contractor

sublim adj. = sublime; exalted; exquisite

subsektor n. = subsector

subsidi n. = subsidy; grant

subsidiari n. = a subsidiary; a controlled company as part of a larger company

subsistem n. = subsystem; a system that is part of a larger system

subsonik adj. = subsonic; less than the speed of sound

substansial adj. = substantial; significant

substantif adj. = substantive; having substance; real

subtil adj. = subtle; faint; indirect

sufiks n. = suffix; an affix added to the end of a word

sugestif adj. = suggestive; suggesting; implying; hinting at

superfisial adj. = superficial; of a shallow nature; not substantial; cosmetic

superlatif adj. = superlative; superior; of the best sort

supersonik adj. = supersonic; exceeding the speed of sound

suplai n. = a supply; a stock on hand; units available for sale

suplemen n. = a supplement; an appendage; an augmentation; an additional part

surealistik adj. = surrealistic; having an artistic style that uses bizarre and unreal images

surogat n. = a surrogate; a substitute

tabel n. = table (a chart, list, etc.)

taksi n. = taxi; taxi cab

taksidermi n. = taxidermy

taktik n. = tactic; stratagem; strategy; strategic method

tapioka n. = tapioca; a food product made from cassava

teknikal adj. = technical; involving many details; having a complicated technique

teknologi n. = technology; the use of sophisticated techniques

tekstil n. = textile; fabric; cloth

tektonik n. = tectonics; large-scale changes and movements of the earth's crust

telefoto adj. = telephoto

telegraf n. = telegraph

telekomunikasi n. = telecommunication

teleks n. = telex; a printed message sent via telephone communication

telepati n. = telepathy; paranormal communication of thoughts

telepon n. = telephone

telepromter n. = teleprompter

teleskop n. = telescope; a device for viewing and magnifying distant objects

teleskopik adj. = telescopic; regarding telescopes; similar to a telescope

televisi n. = television

temperamen n. = temperament; a person's nature and character

temperatur n. = temperature; a measurement of the degree of heat or cold

templat n. = template; a pattern or model

tendensi n. = tendency; inclination; proclivity; penchant; propensity; predilection

tenis n. = tennis

tentakel n. = tentacle; an arm-shaped organ of some creatures

tentatif adj. = tentative; preliminary; hesitant

teokrasi n. = theocracy; a system of governance by religious leaders

teorem n. = theorem; a theory that is capable of being tested for validity

teoretik adj. = theoretic; theoretical; speculative; academic; regarding theory

teori n. = theory; supposition; speculative idea; hypothesis; theorem

terapi n. = therapy; a type of medical treatment

terarium n. = terrarium; a place to keep plants or small animals in an enclosed environment

teritori n. = territory; an area of land

teritorial adj. = territorial; regarding a territory

termal adj. = thermal; concerned with heat

terminologi n. = terminology; specialized terms or words

termometer n. = thermometer; an instrument for measuring temperature

termonuklir adj. = thermonuclear; regarding nuclear fission

teror n. = terror; a condition of great fear

teroris n. = terrorist; a person who terrorizes or causes great fear

terorisme n. = terrorism; systematic or organized terror

tes n. = a test; an exam; an examination

tesaurus n. = thesaurus; a book that lists words in groups of synonyms

tesis n. = thesis; proposition; dissertation

testamen n. = testament; evidence; proof; a will

testikel n. = testicle; gonad

testosteron n. = testosterone; a male hormone

tifoid n. = typhoid; a type of infectious disease with fevers

tiket n. = ticket

tipikal adj. = typical; representative; of a common type

tipografi n. = typography; the style of printed materials

tirani n. = tyranny; despotism

titel n. = title; name

tituler adj. = titular; regarding titles

toksik adj. = toxic; poisonous; noxious

toksikologi n. = toxicology; the science and study of poisons and toxic substances

toksin n. = toxin; a naturally-produced poison or toxic substance

tol n. = toll; a fee charged for use of a bridge, road, etc.

toleran adj. = tolerant; forbearing; allowing; lenient

tomat n. = tomato; a type of red vegetable grown on climbing plants

tonik n. = tonic; an invigorating drink or medicine

topik n. = topic; subject of discussion

topografi n. = topography; natural land features

totaliterianisme n. = totalitarianism; a system of governing that demands total obedience

tradisional adj. = traditional; customary; conventional

tradisionalisme n. = traditionalism; strong respect for customs and tradition

trafik n. = traffic; the flow and movement of vehicles, boats, commodities, etc. 

tragedi n. = tragedy; tragic event; disaster

tragik adj. = tragic; very unfortunate

traktor n. = tractor; a vehicle used for farm work or for working with soil

trampolin n. = trampoline

transendental adj. = transcendental

transgenik adj. = transgenic; regarding the transfer of genes

transitif adj. = transitive; able to take a direct object (in sentence structure)

transkrip n. = transcript; a written copy

transparansi n. = transparency; the condition of being transparent

traumatik adj. = traumatic; regarding trauma, serious injury or emotional shock

trendi adj. = trendy; fashionable; stylish

triatlon n. = triathlon; an athletic event consisting of three types of competition

tribalisme n. = tribalism; devotion to one's own tribe or clan

tribun n. = tribune; a common name for a newspaper

trigonometri n. = trigonometry

trik n. = trick; a deceptive maneuver; a gimmick

triliun n. = trillion; one thousand billion (U.S. system = 1,000,000,000,000)

trilogi n. = trilogy; triad; a set of three related things

trofi n. = trophy; a memento awarded to a winner or victor

trombon n. = trombone; a metal musical instrument with a sliding tube

trompet n. = trumpet; a type of musical instrument

tropi n. = trophy; a memento awarded to a winner or victor

troposfer n. = troposphere

tuberkulosis n. = tuberculosis; an infectious disease of the lungs

turbin n. = turbine; a rotary motor with a shaft and blades

turbulen adj. = turbulent; agitated

turis n. = tourist; a sightseer; a person who travels for pleasure

turisme n. = tourism; the industry related to tourists

ultrasonik adj. = ultrasonic; very high pitched sounds

urbanisme n. = urbanism

urgen adj. = urgent; exigent; needing quick action

urgensi n. = urgency; a situation needing quick action

urinalisis n. = urinalysis; analysis of urine for diagnosis and testing

urologi n. = urology; branch of medicine dealing with the urinary system

utiliti n. = utility; usefulness; functionality

vaksin n. = vaccine; a substance used for immunization

vakum n. = vacuum; void; a space devoid of all matter

vampir n. = vampire; a blood-sucking creature that has risen from the dead

vandalisme n. = vandalism; damaging the property of others for fun

variabel adj. = variable; subject to variation

vasektomi n. = vasectomy

vaselin n. = vaseline; a type of petroleum jelly

vaskuler adj. = vascular; regarding blood vessels and blood flow

vegetarian n. = vegetarian; a person who does not eat meat

vegetarisme n. = vegetarianism; vegan; the practice of not eating meat

vektor n. = vector; heading; course of travel

velodrom n. = velodrome; bicycle racing track

vendeta n. = vendetta; mutual acts of revenge

vertikal adj. = vertical; upright; plumb; straight up and down

virilisme n. = virilism; virility; manliness

virulen adj. = virulent; poisonous; malignant; harmful

visibel adj. = visible; able to be seen

yoghurt n. = yogurt; a food made from fermented milk

zodiak n. = zodiac; astrological groupings of stars or objects in outer space

zoologi n. = zoology; the study of animals


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